This paper describes the use of rapid appraisal methods for collecting health data in a poor urban area of Tanzania. During a nine-day field-based workshop with municipal officials rapid appraisal methods were used to collect data and plan interventions in three poor municipal areas. The main technique used was semi-structured interviews with key informants. However, after conducting the interviews it was realised that the participants had no way of assigning any priority to the problems which had been revealed. A second visit had to be made to ask the informants to rank the problems in order of priority. Once the data had been analyzed and priorities for each area identified, the workshop participants considered how to develop a plan of action to respond to the problems. The paper concludes with an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology based on this experience.
This draft section of a paper, which includes the use of formal survey methods including questionnaires, discusses the use of participatory methods in urban research. The introductory section highlights the need for urban based research, with a focus on urban poverty. The aims are: to measure the nature and causes of urban poverty, understand household survival and coping mechanisms, and design policy and programmes. The increase in use of participatory techniques, with their emphasis on communication, a holistic analysis, visual techniques and triangulation could apply equally to urban situations as to rural ones. The process of participatory research, the nature of the information collected and the involvement of communites are outlined. It is argued that conducting "PRA" in urban area may have logistical advantages, and is applicable beyond the scope of poverty analysis. The dangers in application are mentioned, and the paper concludes with a list of tools, such as SSIs, ranking, maps, transects, calanders, timelines and livelihood analysis which are discussed in detail.
A brief report on the activities of the first phase of the Ghana Participatory Poverty Assessment which includes a section on methodological issues regarding the use of PRA in the study and in particular, its applicability in an urban context.
The programme of economic reform being implemented in Ethiopia is likely to hit the urban poor hardest. Various schemes have been planned by the government to mitigate the impact, including introducing a system of vouchers to be exchanged with local traders for food and kerosene. The article describes a limited, one-day RUA which was carried out in Addis Ababa as part of an assessment of the feasibility of the voucher system. Information was sought on the characteristics, indicators and measurement of poverty, the type of assistance required, and whether potential beneficiaries would receive information about such programmes. A supplementary question of interest was whether Rapid Appraisal techniques were useful in designing such large-scale programmes.
Observations on urban applications of PRA methods from Ghana and Zambia: participatory poverty assessments
Over the last year exercises termed participatory poverty assessments have been carried out as part of the process of preparing World Bank Country Poverty Assessments in a number of countries. In Ghana, Zambia and Kenya such exercises have been carried out in rural and urban areas using methods based on the RRA/PRA 'family'. The article questions some of the assumptions underlying the methods, drawing on experiences in Ghana and Zambia. It argues that assumptions of community, mutual knowledge and homogeneity in livelihood patterns derive from the rural-based traditions of the RRA/PRA approach and are not relevant to an urban context.
Implementation Strategy for Jones Town: Urban poverty, Kingston, Jamaica. Preparation of a strategic plan supporting the revitalisation of Jones Town.
This study illustrates the planning of an Implementation Strategy for the revitalisation of Jones Town. The study was requested by the Kingston Restoration Company (KRC) in collaboration with the ODA. The study identified the main issues in the area, undertaking an assessment of poverty, the institutional arrangements that would be needed to improve conditions, a review of community based action, a more detailed consideration of economic and employment conditions alongside a reconsideration of the development potential within the area. Based on this analysis, an Implementation Strategy was developed. The investigation and planning processes involved the use of participatory methods particularly mapping, ranking and group discussions.
Parallels are drawn between the current treatment of poverty and the classical approach. Similarly, investment in infrastructure is considered to be non pro poor, since it emphasises the rehabilitation of infrastructure which does not serve poorer people in the first place. Where interventions do occur they are generally of a blueprint nature. This is illustrated through a case study of an urban area in Sambia, which highlights several of the issues and concerns.
This research into urban poverty in Zambia was conducted using 'participatory urban assessment', as part of a Copperbelt Urban Livelihoods Project. The rationale and the approach used are discussed in the first section, before looking in greater detail at the specific activities and tools. The bulk of the report is a presentation of the findings of participatory appraisals in two compounds. These are intended as case studies, and will be used as the basis for project proposals. The findings are given in detail, with many diagrams drawn by people from the compounds reproduced. Time lines examine the history of the compounds, seasonal calendars deal with agricultural production and there are mapping and matrices. The final part of each study is wealth ranking, which leads on to detailed case studies of members of the different community groupings identified and their different coping mechanisms and potential strategies.
This report presents the preliminary results of a participatory study of urban poverty and violence in Jamaica carried out during September - October 1995 using a Participatory Urban Appraisal (PUA) methodology. It describes findings from 5 poor urban communities in Jamaica on local perceptions of poverty and violence, and the causal relationships that produce and reproduce violence. The PUA began by eliciting local people's conceptions of poverty and vulnerability as an "entry-point" to discuss the sensitive theme of violence. The study clearly identified that violence in the selected communities erodes two key assets - labour and social capital - which are vital for reducing poverty, and ends with conclusions of specific relevance to the design of the Jamaican Social Investment Fund.
Training Workshop on Participatory Appraisal Methods for Participatory Assessment of Urban Poverty and Violence in Jamaica, 12-22 September, 1995
This document describes, in detail, the processes and the outcomes of a training workshop on participatory appraisal methods, the main objective of which was to develop a methodology for the study of urban poverty and violence in Jamaica. The training workshop, which was participated in by over a dozen people including the Bank staff, was carried out in three phases: an introduction to the methodology in classroom sessions, pilot fieldwork and review, and the planning for the main fieldwork . The report provides an example of how PRA tools can be used successfully in studying more sensitive issues in the urban context as well. The fact that a good PRA in practice can help to bring about changes in 'outsiders' view regarding the importance and practicality of PRA tools is demonstrated. The report contains annexes with tables and diagrams.