This paper argues for the importance of, and opportunity provided by, combining qualitative and quantitative methods, and their corresponding disciplinary perspectives, in analysing chronic or persistent poverty. Quantitative analysis to date has been based on longitudinal or panel survey data, and mostly on income measures, but this analysis only provides a partial picture of chronic poverty and in any case is not feasible in the large number of countries which do not have panel data. Qualitative analysis often stresses the diversity of experiences of poverty, and highlights some of the processes underlying it, but does not provide information on magnitudes and patterns of chronic poverty. Our understanding of chronic poverty can be considerably enriched by integrating qualitative and quantitative information and tools from the beginning. This paper illustrates this for the case of Rwanda using a good quality participatory poverty assessment in conjunction with a single round household survey, using the qualitative study in its own right and in directing the quantitative analysis to build this understanding of chronic poverty
In this book, development and other social policy scholars and practitioners seek to address simplistic criticisms of participation, while addressing key problems of power and politics. The authors describe and analyse new experiments in participation from a wide diversity of social contexts that show how participation can, given certain conditions, be linked to genuinely transformative processes and outcomes for marginalised communities and people. The book looks at links between participatory development and participatory governance, and spans the range of institutional actors involved in these approaches including the state, civil society and donor agencies. The book places participatory interventions in political contexts, and links them to issues of popular agency and development theory. The book is grouped under six main themes: from tyranny to transformation?; rethinking participation; participation as popular agency: reconnecting with underlying processes of development; realizing transformative participation in practice: state and civil responses; donors and participation: caught between tyranny and transformation; and broader perspectives on from tyranny to transformation. Chapters include "Towards participation as transformation: critical themes and challenges" by Sam Hickey and Giles Mohan; "Towards participatory governance: assessing the transformative possibilities" by John Gaventa; "Rules of thumb for participatory change agents" by Bill Cooke; "Relocating participation within a radical politics of development: critical modernism and citizenship" by Giles Mohan and Sam Hickey; "Spaces for transformation? Reflections on issues of power and difference in participation in development" by Andrea Cornwall; "Towards a repoliticization of participatory development: political capabilities and spaces of empowerment" by Glyn Williams; "Participation, resistance and problems with the local in Peru: towards a new political contract?" by Susan Vincent; "The transformative unfolding of tyrannical participation: the corvÚe tradition and ongoing local politics in Western Nepal" by Katsuhiko Masaki; "Morality, citizenship and participatory development in an indigenous development association: the case of GPSDO and the Sebat Bet Gurage of Ethiopia" by Leroi Henry; "Relocating participation within a radical politics of development: insights from political action and practice" by Sam Hickey and Giles Mohan; "Securing voice and transforming practice in local government: the role of federating in grassroots development" by Diana Mitlin; "Participatory municipal development plans in Brazil: divergent partners constructing common futures" by Glauco Regis Florisbelo and Irene Guijit; "Confrontations with power: moving beyond the tyranny of safety in participation" by Ute Kelly; "Falling forward: going beyond PRA and imposed forms of participation" by Mark Waddington and Giles Mohan; "Participation in poverty reduction strategies: democracy strengthened or democracy undermined?" by David Brown; "Beyond the technical fix? Participation in donor approaches to rights-based development" by Jeremy Holland, Mary Ann Brocklesby and Charles Aburge; "The social embeddedness of agency and decision-making" by Frances Cleaver; and "Theorizing participation and institutional change: ethnography and political economy" by Anthony Bebbington.
This policy briefing paper highlights the absence of effective policies to address the needs of the rural poor within the Honduran and Nicaraguan poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs) and calls for genuine pro-rural poor policies within the forthcoming Second Generation PRSPs. The report states that government policies outlined in the PRSPs have had a disappointing impact on reducing levels of rural poverty, because instead of focusing on tackling issues of inequality, for example access to land or public services, they have tended to focus on improved productivity and competitiveness in the agricultural sector in order to increase exports, economic growth and integration into global markets. Alongside the failure of PRSPs to address the key issues affecting the rural poor, the report also notes implementation problems with carrying out PRSP policies because of delays in funding, largely a result of both countries going off-track with the IMF. The report makes the following recommendations: government must adopt a multidimensional approach to measuring poverty and a comprehensive analysis of the specific determinants of rural poverty must be carried out through participatory processes; inequity in land distribution must be addressed in forthcoming PRSPs; Poverty Social Impact Assessments (PSIA) are urgently required to assess the impact of neo-liberal macro-economic and structural adjustment policies on the poor and macro-economic policies must be decided within participatory forum; the role of the IMF in signalling to other donors should be reduced, with countries taking greater control and donors undertaking their own independent analysis of the fiscal situation; and there needs to be greater participation in policy making by the poor with a move from consultation to joint decision-making.
This book aims to provide a source of information on the key issues and constraints and capacity building necessary to implement participatory approaches in China today. It provides case studies from Chinese academics and practitioners in forestry, natural resource management, rural development, irrigation and poverty alleviation. It primarily aims to be about strengthening local government as a key player in the development of participatory initiatives.
This article discusses a participatory approach to measuring poverty for assessment of poverty-targeting interventions. This method was developed from work carried out in Malawi during evaluations of the Targeted Inputs Programme (TIP). The article presents what has been done so far with the participatory approach and discusses the challenges that lie ahead. The approach involves absolute as well as relative measurements of poverty and a technique called community mapping with cards. The article concludes with a consideration of ethical and future challenges, including ways of involving participants in the analysis of the numerical data generated in their villages and persuading policy makers of the usefulness of the approach.
This toolkit is a collection of participatory tools to assess poverty and well being among poor livestock keepers. For those readers familiar with participation, many of the tools are not new, but rather have been adapted for use within the livestock sector. As such, the overall objective is to provide a holistic to enhance understanding of the needs and the strengths of the poor, both within the livestock sector and more generally. The LPA (Livestock and Poverty Assessment) methodology was devised to inform practitioners on the importance of livestock to livelihoods and well being, in the past and present; the demographics of livestock keepers; the major issues in animal health and production. The manual is divided into five sections, with a group of complementary participatory exercises described in each section. Section 1 looks at how to set the scene for the LPA using a simplified sustainable livelihood approach; historical trend analysis; community resource mapping; livestock production and management calendar; livelihood changes diagramming; and livelihood opportunities and constraints diagramming. Section 2 focuses on profiling livestock keepers using livestock and poverty ranking; compound mapping; household resource mapping; and community rangeland mapping. Section 3 describes ways of assessing issues in animal health and production through mapping of livestock health-care providers and consumer preferences regarding animal health care; livestock disease prioritisation; livestock problem ranking; and participatory herd assessment. Section 4 concentrates on determining the feasibility of livestock aid by assessing motivation and through community values diagramming. The toolkit also includes some brief general guidelines for participation.
This report presents a survey made by the College of Humanities and Development of China Agricultural University, on the status of poverty and the implementation of participatory village poverty alleviation plans (PVPAP) supported by the Chinese government. The survey was conducted in 24 villages in the provinces of Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Jiangxi, Ningxia and Gansu, and informants at province, county, township and village level participated. The research methodologies included semi-structured interviews with key informants, focus groups and farmersÆ households, transect walks, and questionnaires. The report describes the research methodology in further detail and presents the findings of the survey. It examines the development and implementation of the PVPAPs, looking at problems with village selection and lack of participation, and highlighting key issues that need further attention regarding PVPAPs. The current status of poverty overall in China and in the PVPAP villages is presented together with a self-assessment of poverty by the poor themselves. The cases in all of the surveyed provinces are also presented, including findings and recommendations for the future. Among the main conclusions were: that while the absolute number of poor had decreased the gap between the poor and the rich had grown; the number of poor, whose poverty is caused by sicknesses, natural disasters, market risks and education expenses, is increasing; participatory methods have yet to become accepted in poverty reduction by the related government agencies; capacity building is needed; and the PVPAP must be further integrated into county development plans and others sector plans.
This guide aims to present a briefing on the purposes, domain, strategies, instruments, samples and enforcement plans of the Palestinian Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPPA) project, the result of a memorandum of understanding signed between the Palestinian Authority (represented by MOPIC) and DFID in 2000. The UN Development Program (UNDP) monitored the implementation of the project in collaboration with the National Commission for Poverty Eradication (MNCPE) and MOPIC's Institutional Building and Human Development Directorate (IBHDD).
This document is the outcome of continued discussions over several months between the poverty reduction team, the supervisory panel of the project and the project management team, and is based on the characteristics and philosophy of poverty assessment as outlined in the memorandum of understanding. It reflects the importance of linking PPAs with the process of policies and strategies formulation for poverty reduction. It also presents the mechanisms for integrating and including the perspectives of poor people into the process of formulation of policies and poverty reduction programmes at national and local levels.
Views of the poor: some thoughts on how to involve your own staff to conduct quick, low cost but insightful research into poor people's perspectives
This handbook is a result of the Views of the poor study, organised by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), Tanzania, in late 2002, to assist in strengthening the poverty focus of the new Swiss country programme for Tanzania. The handbook focuses on a rapid and low cost approach used in the participatory rural study of household surveys of the poor. The intention of the study was to orient the SDC staff and partners directly in primary research and thus orient them in them current realities of rural poverty through a brief immersion experience, and gather first hand insights into experiences of poor households, contributing to policy design. The handbook goes through step by step thee design of the approach, looking at preparations such as: planning, training and orienting staff, site selection, piloting; and implementation of surveys. The authors also reflect on limitations and challenges in the approach.
Effective poverty reduction requires narrowing the gap between words and actions, making trust and accountability real within and between organisations, at all levels and between all actors. Aid agencies today are shifting emphasis from projects and service delivery to a language of rights and governance. They have introduced new approaches and requirements, stressing partnership and transparency. But embedded traditions and bureaucratic inertia mean old behaviours, procedures and organisational cultures persist. This Policy Briefing looks at how current practices maintain such cultures, and at how they can be changed by achieving consistency between personal behaviour; institutional norms and the new development agenda.
This paper explores the dynamics of the making and shaping of poverty policy. It takes as its starting point a critique of linear versions of policy-making, highlighting the complex interplay of power, knowledge and agency in poverty policy processes. We argue in Section One that the policy process involves a complex configuration of interests between a range of differently positioned actors, whose agency matters, but whose interactions are shaped by power relations. Making sense of contemporary poverty policy requires a closer exploration of the dynamics within and beyond the arenas in which policies are made and shaped. It also requires an understanding of how particular ways of thinking about poverty have gained ascendancy, coming to determine the frame through which poverty is defined, measured and tackled. To do so calls for an historical perspective, one that situates contemporary poverty policy with regard to antecedent visions and versions. Section Two of this paper thus provides an overview of differing narratives on the causes of and solutions to poverty, especially as they have emerged in dominant development discourses. Making sense of participation in the policy process requires that we identify and explore policy spaces in which alternative versions of poverty may be expressed by a variety of voices, and the dynamics of inclusion and exclusion that surround them. In Section Three of this paper, we examine two broad kinds of policy spaces - those that are found in invited forums of participation created from above by powerful institutions and actors, and those more autonomous spaces created from below through more independent forms of social action on poverty related issues. By examining how different narratives of poverty and different actors interact in such spaces - as well as how they may be excluded from them - we can better understand the ways in which power and knowledge frame the policy process.