A memo from Ravi Kanbur on the project is attached
This information pack from the Exposure and Dialogue Programme (http://www.exposure-nsd.de) contains instruction materials for immersion and exposure and dialogue programmes (EDPs). In EDPs participants share the life of poor, in order to get better insight in their life. The main aim of the EDP is to transform the existing structures in favour of the poor and underprivileged by encouraging key individuals form diverse sectors to make use of their respective competence and their possibilities to act in favour of the poor. ôGuidelines for Reflection and Dialogue in Exposure and Dialogue Programmesö are concerned with the two phases that come after the exposure phase. They cover the time spent in reflection of the experiences of exposures and in deepening these experiences in dialogue. The guidelines go throw five steps of dealing with this process including individual reflection; telling key stories, communicating the main experiences of the exposure; thematic deepening of experiences to feed into policy development; north-south dialogue and networking; and reflecting on consequences and follow-up. ôGuidelines for Facilitators of Exposure and Dialogue Programmesö goes through all the phases of the EDP and looks specifically at the role of the facilitator. It gives thirteen key recommendations on how implement an EDP. The ôHand-out for shaping the Immersion Process: Exposure, Reflection and Dialogueö is directed at participants of an immersion programme, and gives practical tips for shaping the phases of a programme, and the individual steps that participants should take during the course of the programme. The ôHand-out for shaping the process of Immersion and for analysing the findings about vulnerability, life cycle risks and the risk management strategies of women workersö is directed specifically at participants of an EDP undertaken with the Self Employed WomenÆs Association, SEWA, in Gujarat, India. It contains tolls for shaping the phases of exposure and reflection, and for the analysis of life cycle risks and for writing life stories focussing on risk management strategies. The booklet öDevelopment has got a faceö gives an overview of EDP process, and presents experiences from EDPs conducted by the Association for the promotion of North-South Dialogue in Brazil, the Philippines, India and Bolivia. The pack also contains an example of a brief report from an EDP conducted with SEWA, India.
This report is a result of the first ever Uganda Participatory Poverty Assessment Process (UPPAP) in which local people were consulted in 36 rural and urban sites in nine districts in Uganda. In this assessment "voices" and perspectives of the poor are brought to the fore to influence district and national planning, implementation and monitoring. The report covers perceptions of poverty and wellbeing and strategies for coping with being poor, as well as the degree to which the poor have access to, and benefit from, services and infrastructure. It goes on to look at issues of government and poverty, along with the role that security plays in development. Finally there are rcommendations and messages for policy makers. The report points to the fact that poverty is more than just income and expenditure or the lack of basic needs, it is also a feeling of powerlessness. Poverty in the eyes of the poor is location specific, multi-dimensional, cyclic and seasonal and requires a holistic approach to it's alleviation.
Analysis of Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA) and household survey findings on poverty trends in Uganda
Analytical work on poverty in Uganda has been undertaken using both quantitative measures and participatory data collection. This is a report of a consultancy carried out to analyze Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA) and household survey findings on poverty trends in Uganda, particularly to help clarify the picture on poverty trends, identify areas which require further work and any further findings from the analysis which require policy action. Key findings on the relationship between the PPA and household survey results on poverty trends conclude that the two sets of findings have different strengths and can be used to complement each other. Recommendations for future poverty monitoring are made, particularly in terms of using both data sets in complementary fashion to improve monitoring. Some issues for the future development and refinement of pro-poor policies are also raised.
This manual presents methods by which the poor and the poorest can be identified so that they can be reached by the services of microfinance institutions - and so that the non-poor can be excluded from them. Whilst poverty targeting has long been regarded as difficult and costly, the authors argue that these methods, developed through field experience, are practical and cost-effective. The CASHPOR (Credit and Savings for the Hard-Core Poor) Network has developed a House Index that is adapted to the house styles of all countries in Asia where the Network programmes are operating. The Small Enterprise Foundation (SEF) has taken the methodology of Participatory Wealth Ranking and developed it to become an effective and cost effective means of identifying the poor. The manual gives practical details of these two methods for use by microfinance practitioners and others.
The manual has its origins in field work conducted by CIAT (International Centre for Tropical Agriculture) in Tanzania between 1989 and 1991. Previous PPAs (Participatory Poverty Assessments) have failed to develop measures of poverty that adequately reflect local concepts of poverty, and the conditions of poverty, so that these can be compared with other sites. This manual presents a method for measuring poverty that seeks to resolve this difficulty by identifying, extrapolating, and quantifying local perceptions of poverty and thus develop a regional measure of poverty. The centre of the methodology is inquiry into local perceptions of poverty, based on the local informantsÆ ability to rank their neighbours in terms of poverty and well-being status. The manual is intended for professionals that are involved in designing, planning, and evaluating research and/or development activities. It requires computer facilities to be fully implemented, and some familiarity with spreadsheet and statistics programmes. The methodology is described in nine steps: site selection; ranking well-being; well-being household grouping; extrapolating well-being rankings; developing indicators of well-being; constructing a well-being index; checking the internal and external logic of the well-being index; defining well-being categories according to the index; and creating and using a regional poverty profile. Throughout the manual it is illustrated how the method worked for a case study conducted in 1997-1998 in the departments of Atlantida, El Paraiso, and Yoro in Honduras.
This synthesis and review of participatory work on illbeing and poverty is part of the "Consultations with the Poor" project, which has undertaken to work with poor people in 23 countries to dsicover their perspective on four key themes: illbeing and wellbeing, problems and priorities, institutional relationships and gender. It examines participatory work undertken outside of national level participatory poverty assessments and represents some of the work on illbeing and poverty carried out by NGOs, research institutes and advocacy organisations. The collection of work repeatedly shows that, from the perspectives of poor people, context-specific livelihood issues and their dynamics at both the inter- and intra-household levels are central to the experience of poverty, and to identifying and taking advantage of opportunities to leave it behind.
The Small Enterprise Foundation (SEF) is a micro-finance NGO working in South Africa to provide savings and credit facilities to support business development of the poorest people. Reacting to a realisation that they were not reaching the poorest people, the SEF undertook a pilot study using participatory wealth ranking to establish people's own criteria of poverty. These proved to differ from the externally judged criteria that they had been using to assess eligibility for membership, and led to the adoption of participatory mapping and wealth ranking instead. Their challenge was then one of scale; how to apply this methodology to villages of 700 - 1000 households? This article focuses on some of the challenges faced in designing a cost-effective system that would work in such large villages. It uses Bhungeni village as a case study to illustrate the application of the methodology and then goes on to discuss some of the wider issues of the relevance and use of wealth ranking in the context of a micro-finance programme.
In collaboration with Shinyanga Regional government, UNDP is funding a pilot project on decentralised poverty eradication initiatives, as part of its programme support for Tanzania (1997 - 2002). This document reports on a participatory poverty assessment (PPA) carried out in eight villages in phase I of the project. The PPA went one stage further than earlier PPAs in sub-Sahara Africa in that it sought not only to enrich poverty profiles with local understanding but also to build in as a central component, action-oriented research and planning. An attempt was also made to make the PPA a locally owned activity and capacity building process. An overview of the process methodology is provided, a brief account of the findings and also a review of the impact to date of the whole Shinyanga Human Development Report process at village and government level.
Guidance notes on increasing the participation of the poor in the assessment of the impact of development interventions.
These notes examine the justificaion for the involvement of primary stakeholders in impact assessment and how efforts to do so can be assessed and finally how this can be done.
This paper describes a method for measuring poverty which combines features of wealth or well-being ranking with a survey.
This report documents the 1998 village immersion programme (VIP) for World Bank staff organised by the Gandhigram Rural Institute (GRI) in Tamil Nadu, India. The objectives of the programme were to provide an opportunity to the bank staff to immerse themselves in the social reality of villagers by staying in the villages, listening to the villagers, particularly the disadvantaged and women, and learn from them of their concerns and issues that help or hinder their development; and to understand the potential of poor communities to improve their living conditions when they are provided with support and opportunities for development by the government, NGOs and CBOs (community based organisations). The programme was organised in four different villages from the 4th to the 11th of December 1998. The major components of the programme were: orientation on the programme; actual immersion in the villages; visit to NGOs; interaction with the District Collector and development officials; and reflections on the VIP. The report presents some guidelines for immersion; the activities of the VIP; and reflections and observations of facilitators, Bank staff and villagers on the VIP. It also includes details on placements and the programme schedule.
This describes a Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA) undertaken by the Government of Kenya and the World Bank during Febuary-April 1994. It had three primary objectives; to understand poverty from the perspective of the poor, to start a process of dialogue between policy makers, district level providers and the poor and to address the issue of the 'value added' of the PPA approach to understanding poverty. Methods used included mapping, wealth ranking, seasonal analysis, trend and price analysis, focus group discussions, key informant interviews; visual card methods, gender analysis, understanding health seeking behaviour; and incomplete sentences. Statistically the findings of the PPA and the Welfare Monitoring Survey based on an established poverty line were strikingly similar. The study also found a gap in the perception of poverty between the poor themselves and district officials. Separate chapters look at poverty in urban Nairobi and Mandera district.
Poverty and well being : rural community views and policy implications for socio-economic and natural resource development.
Based on research in poor village communities in West Bengal using participatory mapping and wealth grouping exercises, this paper analyses rural people's perceptions of poverty and suggests policy measures based on them.