This guide aims to present a briefing on the purposes, domain, strategies, instruments, samples and enforcement plans of the Palestinian Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPPA) project, the result of a memorandum of understanding signed between the Palestinian Authority (represented by MOPIC) and DFID in 2000. The UN Development Program (UNDP) monitored the implementation of the project in collaboration with the National Commission for Poverty Eradication (MNCPE) and MOPIC's Institutional Building and Human Development Directorate (IBHDD).
This document is the outcome of continued discussions over several months between the poverty reduction team, the supervisory panel of the project and the project management team, and is based on the characteristics and philosophy of poverty assessment as outlined in the memorandum of understanding. It reflects the importance of linking PPAs with the process of policies and strategies formulation for poverty reduction. It also presents the mechanisms for integrating and including the perspectives of poor people into the process of formulation of policies and poverty reduction programmes at national and local levels.
The article argues that strategic planning is crucial for tackling poverty, and looks at the anti-poverty strategy and plan of action in Bulgaria. The article first describes poverty in Bulgaria, and how low levels of income and low levels of employment make women particularly vulnerable. The author looks in detail at the anti-poverty strategy and plan of action as strategic planning tools, and argues that the planning processes have to be made fully participatory and reflect the vision of the poor and vulnerable people. To achieve this, the author suggests that NGOs and CSOs have to be supported further through training in strategic thinking to enable efficient and effective participation in planning processes.
A method known as 'Global Voices', which uses participatory video, was used to bring the voices of the real experts on poverty - the poor themselves - to Oxfam UK and Ireland's strategic review. This account examines the Devonport (in Plymouth, UK) experience, the training processes, the ways in which they were used by the local partners in Devonport, and the analysis that resulted. It is written through the voices of three team members.
The central role of research in legitimating knowledge - in shaping what kinds of knowledge count - means that this is a particularly important activity for people living in poverty. But it should also be seen as a part of a broader agenda, about the right of people living in poverty to participate in society more generally, especially in debates and decision making, and to have greater control over their lives. This report focuses on the participation of people with direct experience of poverty in research and inquiry into poverty. It aims to explain the added value of participatory approaches, and to explore some of the debates. It analyses the concepts of participatory practice in research and inquiry into poverty, why it may be useful, and the influences shaping debates on the subject. It also presents some examples of where the approach has been used. An overview of participatory practice and inquiry into poverty in the UK is presented, and the possibilities and pitfalls for the approached are analysed. Finally, conclusions about the impact of the approach are made, and recommendations directed at governments and funding bodies for research and development work are given on how the approach should be facilitated.
This IDS working paper examines the role of knowledge in the process of making and implementing poverty reduction policy. It focuses on the production of poverty knowledge through measurement and assessment, providing an overview of contemporary poverty assessment approaches, and the issues and dilemmas involved in applying them in the context of poverty reduction policy processes. The first section examines the policy process in order to understand the relationship between poverty knowledge and policy change. It looks at how legitimate knowledge is traditionally framed in the policy process as the domain of technical experts who reduce complex phenomena to measurable variables, and how this frame changes if policy is understood as a more chaotic process with multiple actors involved. Section Two discusses the broad questions of what poverty actually is and how it can be measured, focusing on the fact that a consensus appears to have emerged which then obscures the many debates centred around poverty measurement. Three policy events are examined in order to show how different objectives shape the methodological choices policy actors make. The third section focuses on a range of methodologies available for poverty assessments, with a focus on household surveys and participatory poverty assessments (PPAs). Lastly, the World Bank and Oxfam are examined in order to understand how two international development actors with different objectives made use of acquired poverty knowledge in constructing policy messages. The argument is proposed that the agency and objectives of the policy actors themselves are most important in shaping policy narratives.
From Vulnerability to Resilience: A handbook for programming design based on field experience in Nepal
This handbook is aimed at practitioners who seek examples of how the V2R framework can be used in practice, based on examples from Nepal. It offers a step process, workbooks and tools. It includes guidance on how to include long-term trends in programming with a focus on climate change.
It is essential that organisations working on poverty reduction take into account the impact of climate change on the communities and sectors where they are working. In so doing, they will be better able to support community members and government officials to adapt to the adverse effects and take advantage of any opportunities presented. This requires a detailed analysis of the impacts of climate change at the local level in order to build adaptive capacity to withstand both sudden shocks and incremental changes in the climate. Participatory tools have been updated for use of uncovering community perceptions of changes, alongside identifying historical climate data.
This issue of in brief traces synergies and tensions between gender and participation in development practice. The lead article cites the importance of mainstreaming gender-aware and participatory approaches for equity; there are two case studies concerned with entrenched resistance to equity within organisations; a final article considers the incorporation of gender into poverty reduction strategies advocated by the World Bank.
Concern with poverty within the World Bank has ebbed and flowed over time. What is different about current thinking is that awareness of "women in development" and "gender and development" is far more pervasive. The gender and poverty relationship, which has been readily taken up by development agencies such as the World Bank, is far from straightforward, and there are concerns that objectives about unequal gender relations will become subordinatied to an agenda about increasing welfare. This is the context within which this paper addresses gender in the World Bank's Poverty Assessments. By analysing six assessments from four countries the paper outlines ways in which gender concerns actually do, or do not, appear. It seeks to explain why gender appears in the forms it does and when it does. A number of points emerge not simply about the approach to gender within the World Bank, but also about the approach to poverty, to methodological issues and to policy.
This study is part of a global research effort entitled Consultations with the Poor, designed to inform the World Development Report 2000/1 on Poverty and Development. The research has used participatory methods to involve and give a voice to poor people in twenty-three countries around the world. This report is from Ghana, from sites selected to give a rural/urban balance. The study focuses on four main topics, each with a set of key themes, as follows: Exploring well-being À How do people define their quality of life, their ill-being or well-being? How have these changed over time? À How do people perceive security, risk, vulnerability, opportunities, social exclusion and crime and conflict, and how have these perceptions changed over time? À How do households and individuals cope with a decline in well being and how do these coping strategies affect their lives? Priorities of the poor À Listing of problems faced by different groups within the community and identifying problems faced by the poor. À Prioritisation of problems, in terms of the most pressing needs of the different groups. À Have these problems changed over time? What are people's hopes and fears for the future? Institutional analysis À Which institutions are important in people's lives? À How do people rate these institutions? À Do people feel that they have any control or influence over these institutions? À Which institutions support people in coping with crisis? Gender relations À What are the existing gender relations within the household? What is women's relative position today as compared with the past, and to men? À What are the existing gender relations within the community? À Are there differences in gender relations among different groups within the community?
The video "draws out the key lessons of education reform in South Korea. The education system helped the nation achieve economic growth and make great strides in alleviating poverty. It is useful in training sessions with policymakers worldwide."
This overview describes how poor people in the Consultations with the Poor project viewed wellbeing and illbeing, that is the good life and the bad life. The second part focuses on five cross-cutting problems that were shown to keep poor people trapped in poverty and the bad life: corruption, violence, powerlessness, incapacity and bare subsistence living. Finally there are recommendations for each of these areas.
This pack contains materials from the Grass Roots Immersion Program (GRIP), an exposure and dialogue programme for sensitising World Bank staff to the lives of the poor. The ôGrass-roots Immersion Program Notebookö for participants in the GRIP contains a programme description; programme guidelines; tables with placement opportunities with active and previous GRIP participants from a wide range of countries in Africa, Asia and South America, with site profiles; GRIP profile form; site selection notification form; budget information form; ex-World Bank staff resource list; references on cross-cultural communication including brief analytical texts and a case study from the village Ntita Kalambayi, Zambia; recommendations for maintaining participant health during exposure; and post-immersion readings including de-briefing and dissemination to colleagues. ôGrass Roots Immersion Program Guidelinesö gives direct guidance to participants in GRIP on site selection, orientation and financial support, and gives a brief overview of the Executive Development Programme and the GRIP. The pack also contains a photo-documentation of a GRIP immersion programme undertaken in collaboration with SEWA (Self Employed WomenÆs Association) of Gujurat, India.