The importance of including the poor coincides with a commonly held belief today that widespread poverty in the midst of global prosperity is both unsustainable and morally unacceptable. Now, more than ever before, the focus needs to be on how policy affects the poor, and if the poor themselves can influence policy. Updated from the 1999 edition, this book reflects the shift in dialogue from why the poor should be included in policy formulation to explanations of the way this can be achieved. Drawing on her experience as one of the International Monetary Funds first two social development specialists, the author shows how participatory methods and approaches can enable poor people to analyze their poverty, suggest solutions and express their priorities, and how these can fundamentally differ from those assumed by policymakers. She documents and analyzes the development of a comprehensive methodology that shows how to consult directly with the poor and link the results to the national policy dialogue. . This methodology was developed in partnership with governments, non-governmental organizations and other civil society groups. This edition also includes a new chapter, drawing on recent case examples from participatory poverty assessments. The book is a guide for those policymakers who wish to understand how to improve consultation with the poor; for governments, NGOs and donors who wish to undertake PPAs; and for all those embarking on the Poverty Reduction Strategy Process.
This guide aims to present a briefing on the purposes, domain, strategies, instruments, samples and enforcement plans of the Palestinian Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPPA) project, the result of a memorandum of understanding signed between the Palestinian Authority (represented by MOPIC) and DFID in 2000. The UN Development Program (UNDP) monitored the implementation of the project in collaboration with the National Commission for Poverty Eradication (MNCPE) and MOPIC's Institutional Building and Human Development Directorate (IBHDD).
This document is the outcome of continued discussions over several months between the poverty reduction team, the supervisory panel of the project and the project management team, and is based on the characteristics and philosophy of poverty assessment as outlined in the memorandum of understanding. It reflects the importance of linking PPAs with the process of policies and strategies formulation for poverty reduction. It also presents the mechanisms for integrating and including the perspectives of poor people into the process of formulation of policies and poverty reduction programmes at national and local levels.
The determination of poverty characteristics and distribution in the West Bank and Gaza Strip is of paramount importance in formulating policies aiming at poverty reduction. This guide presents a briefing on the Palestinian Participatory Poverty Assessment project undertaken in the year 2000. It was initiated to address criticisms levelled against the traditional form of assessment, the poverty line, and to allow for broader poverty assessment which focuses on the viewpoints of the poor and stimulates policy changes. The guide outlines the goals of the project, the methodology and approach, instruments used for data collection and analysis, and suggestions on how to cope with issues arising from the implementation of these instruments. Finally, the structure of the District Reports is presented which summarises the views of poor people into eight sections: demographic, economic and social background of the district; views of poor groups of their situation; poor peopleÆs evaluation of services provided; poor peopleÆs suggestions to eradicate poverty; view of stakeholders of poverty and their vision of what is needed to eradicate it; recommendations for poverty reduction; and annexes.
Lessons learnt on civil society engagement in PRSP processes in Bolivia, Kenya and Uganda: a report emerging from the Bolivian-East African sharing and learning exchange
This report documents the main lessons emerging from a country exchange program on Sharing and Learning from PRSP (Poverty Reduction Strategy paper) experiences in Bolivia, Kenya and Uganda. The report looks at lessons learnt from civil society engagement in PRSP processes on a general level, and specifically, key learnings from civil society (CS) participation. The report argues that if spaces are created for civil society engagement, there are ways in which concerned actors can work towards warming relations with governments without compromising their respective values and autonomy. The authors also propose key guidelines for effectively 'scaling-up' quality CS participation in the PRSP process to include: adoption of a learning approach to the process; accepting the need for sufficient time. Quality participation demands space for trials and errors; recognition of governance issues (i.e., taking into account representation and accountability questions on the part of all actors); self-reflection around institutional strengths and weaknesses; this as a basis for strategic and effective alliances and partnerships. Additionally, in order to ensure quality participation, coordinated efforts and networks should be made to decentralize skills and information downwards. This would address: how consultations or PPAs (Participatory Poverty Assessments) can avoid being extractive and actually build capacity to advocate their own rights among the poor; how capacity building can also be incorporated into monitoring and evaluation mechanisms and processes; that awareness raising and dissemination of information to the grassroots is key, as is civic education; the fact that citizens need to be aware of their rights, and of how to exercise them; the building a democratic culture and sense of citizenship requires a fundamental shift in psycho-social mental models.
Views of the poor: some thoughts on how to involve your own staff to conduct quick, low cost but insightful research into poor people's perspectives
This handbook is a result of the Views of the poor study, organised by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), Tanzania, in late 2002, to assist in strengthening the poverty focus of the new Swiss country programme for Tanzania. The handbook focuses on a rapid and low cost approach used in the participatory rural study of household surveys of the poor. The intention of the study was to orient the SDC staff and partners directly in primary research and thus orient them in them current realities of rural poverty through a brief immersion experience, and gather first hand insights into experiences of poor households, contributing to policy design. The handbook goes through step by step thee design of the approach, looking at preparations such as: planning, training and orienting staff, site selection, piloting; and implementation of surveys. The authors also reflect on limitations and challenges in the approach.
This journal, published by PRIA (Participatory Research in Asia) in New Delhi, focuses on the facilitation of citizenÆs participation in development and democratic governance. This volume presents 7 articles where of 3 are based directly on experiences from practice in case studies, and many are based on experiences from workshops organised by PRIA. Tandon and Mohanty examine the role of civil society initiatives in influencing public policy in India (Influencing public policy: civil society and governance in India). Poverty eradication and democratic governance in South Asia by Sen, is based on the deliberations and concerns that emerged out of the first module, ôUnderstanding the Macro-Policy frameworkö in the second course of Regional Advocacy Training programme held at PRIA. Sen also describes the Status of Baisis in the contemporary context: a study in the Deogarh district of JharkhandI, which is a tiered traditional system of self-governance. Dwivedi contributes with the Challenges of leadership in Voluntary Development Organisations and a discussion of Participatory impact Assessment in South Asia, a pilot project initiated by New Zeeland VASS (Voluntary Agency Support Scheme). Anand write about Experiences and lessons of strengthening citizenÆs monitoring in Jharkand: A citizenship perspective, and Mohanty analyses Research practice engagement for social development. The journal also includes four book reviews on: Internatinoal prespective on voluntary action- Reshaping the third sector edited by Lewis; Complex responsive processes in organisations- Learning and knowledge creation by Staecy; Participation of the poor in Development Initiatives- Taking their rightful place by Long; and Roles and relevance- Development NGOs and the challenge of change by Lewis and Wallace.
Understanding the allocation of public resources through national and local budgets has become an increasing focus of development. This has been driven by two principal trends. Donor agencies, on the one hand, are seeking to deliver growing proportions of their financial assistance to partner countries through mainstream government systems - while, at a different level, a vibrant civil society movement has developed which seeks to promote goals of citizen empowerment, gender equity and poverty reduction through the potentials offered by the budget process. Norton and Elson aim to contribute to the evolving understanding of public expenditure management as a political, rather than a purely technical, process. In particular, they explore the ways in which a rights approach can contribute to strengthening voice and pro-poor outcomes in budget processes, and include examples of pro-poor and gender-sensitive budget initiatives from countries such as Brazil and South Africa. The work was commissioned by DFID as part of the programme of work to take forward it's human rights strategy, and identifies issues, partners, tools and methods that may help development actors to support citizen accountability and a pro-poor, gender-equitable, focus in public expenditure management.
This publication by SEWA (Self employed Womens Association), Ahmedabad, India and North South Dialogue, Germany, that examines poverty in a micro context with the methodology of an Exposure and Dialogue Programme (EDP) that is essentially an attempt to understand poverty first hand and record some of the factors that lead to the overcoming of it. The EDPs are used to assist understanding of the situation of SEWA members, appreciation of the womenÆs strengths, and to find strategies to overcome problems. The first part of the publication My home, my workplace: A life of struggle for security presents the story of Kamlaben Koshti, a bidi worker and SEWA leader in Ahmedabad derived from an EPD on Empowerment through organising in 1999. It examines the process leading up to the EDP, with aims of gather experiences that couldbe used for the World Development Report on Poverty, for designing exposures for politicians, and testing the exposure methods for SEWAÆs own purposes. It goes on to give account for the life history of Kamlaben with lessons to be learnt; analyse the relevance of KamlabenÆs life for SEWAÆs policy, programmes and macro policy; and examining the process of meeting Kmlaben and comprehending her life. The second part of the report Struggling for security illustrates the lives of Savitaben Jivanbhai Valand, a midwife in Vihchiya, and Jetunben Razak Sheik, agarbatti roller in Bapunagar, derived from an EPD in 2001. It looks at the life histories of the two women and reflects on exposure, reflection and dialogue as means to understand vulnerability and to learn about risk management.
The Source from which rivers flow: organising for local governance, poverty reduction and development
This book is about how to strengthen communitiesÆ organising skills, confidence, creativity and relationships. It is designed for citizens and local leaders who are active in local development, but could also be useful to urban residents, councillors and agencies working with communities. It was produced through the community publishing process in Zimbabwe, and was enriched with ideas and examples from citizens and local leaders involved in a pilot programme in Gokwe North, Umzingwane and Maboto called Strengthening Citizen Participation in Local Governance. The book is based on participatory methods and provides question for the reader to reflect on. Although it can be read individually the bok is designed to be read by small groups in study circles, using methods described in the guide. The authors recommend it be used with two other books by ACPD (Africa Community Publishing and Development Trust) called Local Governance and Participation and Peace-building which have important chapters on communication and conflict resolution. The book is divided into ten sections focusing on teamwork; shared leadership; meeting for a purpose; research and writing; choosing priorities and analysing problems; decision making; planning; community participation in financial management; supervising, monitoring and evaluation; and co-ordination, negotiation and advocacy. The book also has a guide for facilitators giving tips on how to involve all participants in the group discussions. A very brief bibliography of associated literature is also included.
The Uganda Participatory Poverty Assessment Process (UPPAP) is an initiative of the Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development (MFPED). Its overall aim is to bring the voices and perspectives of poor people into policy formulation, planning and implementation by central and local governments. A first participatory poverty assessment (PPA1) was carried out in 1998/99 in 36 research sites in nine districts. Its findings were used to inform policymaking. This book details the second PPA (PPA2) which has now been implemented, with two main aims: to deepen the understanding of poverty and poverty trends gained in the first PPA; and to investigate people's experiences with selected government policies. Research was carried out in 60 research sites in 12 districts. Work was undertaken in three phases, or 'cycles', between November 2001 and May 2002. The research was undertaken by seven partner organisations - NGOs or research institutions - working with local researchers, usually from the district administrations, and the overall coordinating and implementing agency was Oxfam GB. The book includes sections on: the Uganda participatory poverty assessment process; poverty, vulnerability and poverty trends; livelihoods and the plan for the modernisation of agriculture; environment and poverty; health and poverty; water and sanitation; education; taxation; and good governance and poverty reduction.
This is a resource book created for front-line workers of development organisations. It focuses on various themes of participatory training methodology and is intended to serve as a useful resource for practitioners running workshops and also for training trainers in these methodologies. It is adapted from PRIA's manual for participatory training methodology, with an aim to simplify the content and tailor if for front-line workers.
This book describes how the Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA) approach has been used at the local level in Bolangir, a district located in the State of Orissa, India, in which poverty manifests itself in many forms. PPAs are seen not as a panacea, but as a starting point to bring about understanding of the whole range of conditions affecting the lives of the poor. The aim of the study was to identify and recommend appropriate policy measures for the Western Orissa Rural Livelihood Project which is supported by DfID India. The scope and methodology of the study was evolved and administered in association with a large number of local stakeholders, with the hope that creating ownership amongst the various agencies would lead to prolonged and effective follow-up. Chapters focus on different issues which include gender dimensions, land and livestock, forest and common property resources, food security, droughts, migration, poverty in the eyes of the people and institutions and development initiatives. It ends with chapters on findings and recommendations for the project design process.