Latin America is one of the world's fastest developing regions, yet also a hub area for crime and violence, where the links between social exclusion, inequality, fear and insecurity are clearly visible. This book explores the meaning of violence and insecurity in nine towns and cities in Colombia and Guatemala to create a framework of how and why daily violence takes place at the community level. It uses participatory urban appraisal methods to ask people about their own perceptions of violence as mediated by family, gender, ethnicity, and age. It develops a typology which distinguishes between the political, social, and economic violence that afflicts communities, and which assesses the costs and consequences of violence in terms of community cohesion and social capital. The featured towns and cities in Colombia are: Embudo, 14 de Febrero and Jerico in Bogotß, and Portico, el Arca, Amanecer, Rosario, Cachicamo and Colombia Chiquita; and in Guatemala: Concepcion, Nuevo Horizonte and La Merced in Guatemala City, and San Jorge, Sacuma, Limoncito, Gucumatz, El Carmen and Villa Real. Based on the experiences in these sites, the book examines the following aspects of urban violence: the role of participatory research methodologies in policy planning; the complexity of daily violence; community perceptions of underlying structural factors; the family as a violent institution; linkage to substance abuse; organised violence at the community level; social institutions and social capital; and community perceptions on strategies of dealing with violence.
A 1995 study in Zimbabwe of Harare's urban population revealed that 10% of the city's population were living in informal settlements. Labelled as temporary by the government, these settlements lack investment in social services, housing, health care, education provision, waste disposal and water and sanitation facilities. Concern over the children in the communities of these settlements prompted Save the Children UK and a local partner organization, Inter Country People's Aid, to carry out a situation analysis in two settlements. The results of this analysis led onto a new research project involving participation where the researchers were the children themselves. The article outlines some of the findings as well as problems encountered by the project, such as parents and confidentiality. It includes illustrations by children and has a detailed conclusion which includes issues such as how to involve children in genuine and meaningful debate, overcoming reluctance by younger children to participate in mixed age group sessions and the need for methodologies to be stimulating and interactive.
Urban youths as community planners and leaders - Exploting their potential with Urban Community Action Planning for Teenagers (UCAPT)
Urban Community Action Planning for teenagers (UCAPT), an urban Northern adaptation of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and participatory action research (PAR), provides primarily low-income teenagers with neighbourhood problem-solving and planning skills in Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. UPCAT integrates indoor and field-based exercises, where young people learn community-based development and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques. This article describes the context of neighbourhood conditions and how UCAPT works. It then draws on two case studies that highlight the roles of teenagers in action. The article concludes by reflecting on some of the challenges that working with teenagers poses.
From earthworks to frameworks : an analysis of the Battle Globe group and their community garden, Reading, UK using the sustainable livelihoods approach
This dissertation has two aims. Firstly, on a practical level, to carry out an assessment of the sustainability of the Battle 'Globe' group (BGG) community garden, in Reading, UK using a participatory action research approach. Secondly, on a theoretical level, to use the Sustainable rural Livelihoods (SRL) approach as a framework for analysing the community garden. The definitions and concepts behind the SRL approach are discussed. This is followed by an analysis of the community garden using parts of the SRL framework. The strengths and weaknesses of this approach are discussed and alternative tools for analysis suggested. The theoretical conclusions are that the SRL framework needs to be more explicit in how to manage scale, how to analyse institutions, how to develop definitions for social capital and how this can be taught to practitioners. The practical conclusions for the BGG are that the sustainability of the group and the garden can be enhanced by participatory monitoring and evaluation, increasing links with other organisations in the neighbourhood and raising awareness of changes at higher level that could affect the garden in the future. Finally, the extent to which theoretical frameworks and participatory approaches compliment one another is addressed.
Pamphlet reporting on the method and findings of a research activity selected and undertaken by children in Dhaka. The key findings include mistreatment and misbehaviour by adults, undesirable jobs, lack of trust by employers, marriage problems for girls, uncertain future, poor income, disrespect, injustice and lack of access to education. The pamphlet includes recommendations from the children and a strategy for the children's own advocacy activities.
This research tried to break new methodological ground in learning about children's lives with children, involving them in research and project work. Working in a metropolis with an estimated 5-6 million people, the research consisted of a series of focused, in-depth, qualitative studies about specific types of children's work. The study found that poor children are working the longest hours in the worst conditions for the lowest pay. The work varies greatly, but overall children are most prevalent in jobs requiring few skills and little capital. The work is often hazardous, boring and repetitive, which, combined with the long working hours, hinders children's physical, social and intellectual development.
Guide to participatory research that provides information regarding strategies, methods and resources used by practicing participatory researchers to mobilise communities around gathering and producing popular knowledge. The report begins with a presentation of case studies from around the USA of various participatory research projects.
Following this are do's, don'ts and maybe's regarding amongst other issues, power relations, building community and group alliances and diversity, getting information out, starting and sustaining groups and dealing with conflict and funding.
This paper has its origins in a participatory action research project by Roofless Women's Action Research Mobilization (RWARM). The organisation seeks to consult directly with those who have experienced homelessness to seek their expertise on how to restructure the current system to effectively combat homelessness. Narratives or stories of formerly homeless women are shared in order to promote understanding of reasons why women become homeless and of issues faced by women once they are homeless.
The article describes the experience of participatory research in a squatter settlement in the Dominican Republic. The research was undertaken as part of a larger study which aimed to explore the links between urban women's changing and multiple productive roles and their health. The article summarises the qualitative participatory research, concentrating on the implications of PUA, in terms of method (what worked, and what did not), and where appropriate, substance (the urban debates uncovered in the process).