Parallels are drawn between the current treatment of poverty and the classical approach. Similarly, investment in infrastructure is considered to be non pro poor, since it emphasises the rehabilitation of infrastructure which does not serve poorer people in the first place. Where interventions do occur they are generally of a blueprint nature. This is illustrated through a case study of an urban area in Sambia, which highlights several of the issues and concerns.
This research into urban poverty in Zambia was conducted using 'participatory urban assessment', as part of a Copperbelt Urban Livelihoods Project. The rationale and the approach used are discussed in the first section, before looking in greater detail at the specific activities and tools. The bulk of the report is a presentation of the findings of participatory appraisals in two compounds. These are intended as case studies, and will be used as the basis for project proposals. The findings are given in detail, with many diagrams drawn by people from the compounds reproduced. Time lines examine the history of the compounds, seasonal calendars deal with agricultural production and there are mapping and matrices. The final part of each study is wealth ranking, which leads on to detailed case studies of members of the different community groupings identified and their different coping mechanisms and potential strategies.
This report presents the preliminary results of a participatory study of urban poverty and violence in Jamaica carried out during September - October 1995 using a Participatory Urban Appraisal (PUA) methodology. It describes findings from 5 poor urban communities in Jamaica on local perceptions of poverty and violence, and the causal relationships that produce and reproduce violence. The PUA began by eliciting local people's conceptions of poverty and vulnerability as an "entry-point" to discuss the sensitive theme of violence. The study clearly identified that violence in the selected communities erodes two key assets - labour and social capital - which are vital for reducing poverty, and ends with conclusions of specific relevance to the design of the Jamaican Social Investment Fund.
Training Workshop on Participatory Appraisal Methods for Participatory Assessment of Urban Poverty and Violence in Jamaica, 12-22 September, 1995
This document describes, in detail, the processes and the outcomes of a training workshop on participatory appraisal methods, the main objective of which was to develop a methodology for the study of urban poverty and violence in Jamaica. The training workshop, which was participated in by over a dozen people including the Bank staff, was carried out in three phases: an introduction to the methodology in classroom sessions, pilot fieldwork and review, and the planning for the main fieldwork . The report provides an example of how PRA tools can be used successfully in studying more sensitive issues in the urban context as well. The fact that a good PRA in practice can help to bring about changes in 'outsiders' view regarding the importance and practicality of PRA tools is demonstrated. The report contains annexes with tables and diagrams.
This case book was prepared by an independent task force on 'community action for social development' as a prelude to the Copenhagen Social Summit. The 12 case studies on successful community-based social development are from a wide range of countries, such as Zimbabwe, Colombia, Tanzania, Sweden, India, Kenya, Poland, Pakistan, Tibet, Thailand and China. This casebook presents diversity of the worldwide movement towards community- based social development and defines a common process used by the successful programs. A common theme that runs through these case studies is that sustainable social development is difficult but possible; outside agencies involved in sustainable human development should respect people, their values and cultures, build trust and share power and responsibility with the people. The book also stresses the need to provide space for community action and maintain close co-operation between the state, community and NGO.
This paper examines participatory evaluation in projects of the NGO PLAN International in Senegal. Through brief case studies it compares the viability of PRA evaluations in urban and rural contexts, and reflects upon the extent to which the methods can be used to reach the least advantaged groups in the communities. A number of criteria are used in assessing PRA as an evaluation tool: limited dependence ono external facilitators; replicability; community 'buy-in' to the process; adaptability to local time constraints; broad participation; reliability of data; turn-around time from data collection to use. The author concludes that PRA is problematic in urban settings if a 'community' is assumed in the same way as in rural areas. Some aspects for improvement (e.g. need to be more focused, and to prevent it from being appropriated by certain groups to the exclusion of others) are discussed.
Report of the results of a PRA carried out in two urban communities in Jordan.
This book intends to provide participatory development tools that will enable those traditionally excluded - particularly women - from decision-making processes and control over resources to have a voice and to play an active role. The authors contend that the tools described increase the capacities of local communities, NGOs and public sector agencies by integrating applied and analytical methods. To illustrate, examples from field experience in urban, rural and agrarian communities from around the world are described. A brief overview of participatory approaches to development is described, including issues such as power relationships within a community and between local institutions and outsiders. Its explores the opportunities for using multi-media tools to strengthen the impact of other tools in conscious-raising, data-gathering, advocacy, and community decision-making and action.
International Workshop on the Use of Participatory Approaches and Methods in Urban Areas, 23-25 January, 1995: Workshop summary
The primary objective of the workshop was for the small group of experienced participants, from both the urban and rural traditions, to explore the problems and prospects associated with developing and applying participatory approaches in urban areas, and to clarify key issues and opportunities for future action. This paper summarises the results. Sections include: Characteristics of Urban Participatory Approaches (internal and external constraints/strengths, the role of facilitators, methods used, actors involved, challenges and lessons, etc.); Emerging Issues and Questions; SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) Analysis on the Use of Participatory Approaches in Urban Areas; and Methodologies and Strategies; Capacity Strengthening and Training; and How to Institutionalise a Participatory Approach.