This research tried to break new methodological ground in learning about children's lives with children, involving them in research and project work. Working in a metropolis with an estimated 5-6 million people, the research consisted of a series of focused, in-depth, qualitative studies about specific types of children's work. The study found that poor children are working the longest hours in the worst conditions for the lowest pay. The work varies greatly, but overall children are most prevalent in jobs requiring few skills and little capital. The work is often hazardous, boring and repetitive, which, combined with the long working hours, hinders children's physical, social and intellectual development.
Learning from experience: the transformation of participatory urban development through community to community exchange
A detailed plan to articulate and disseminate experiences in community exchange programmes between low-income urban communities in Asia and Africa. The report highlights the value of community participation and community exchanges in the light of growing urbanization and decentralization of services. The objective of these exchange programmes has been to transform a process of urban development by enabling the poor themselves to be directly involved in planning and negotiating local development strategies that make sense to them and which fit within their existing livelihood struggles. The organisations involved are: Pilotlight in UK, Asian Coalition for Housing Rights based in Thailand, IIED in UK, Society for the Protection of Area Resource Centres in India and People's Dialogue on Land and Shelter in South Africa.
A publication of the national slum dwellers federation, Mahila Milan and SPARC in India, this newsletter gives examples of good sanitation ideas developed by slum dwellers. Sections include municipal planning and co-ordination, community decision making, technical matters, and reports from several community run toilet projects.
Newsletter of the Mahila Milan and National Slum Dwellers' Federations in India with articles on how communities negotiate with public authorities to find space for their own settlement improvement plans. In Pune, communities have negotiated for land and challenged slum regulation. In Bangalore there is a toilet construction project and in Mumbai street children are working on experimental recyling and composting of garbage. Finally there are articles about exchange visits between different communities in India and between India and South Africa.
This is a report of a visit in August - September 1996 by Sheela Patel to look at tenant participation on housing estates in Britain. Sheela is the Director of SPARC, an NGO working in slum communities, pavement dwellers and other informal settlements in Mumbai, India. The visit aimed to share ideas, offer learning opportunities from the highly developed NGO sector in India and to challenge the conventional notions that the North knows best.. The visit was organised by the Centre for Innovation in Voluntary Action with support from the Oxfam-UK Anti-Poverty Programme.
The Pollards Hill Building Connections Single Regeneration Budget Scheme will run for five years with a budget of ú5 million. It aims to improve access to education, training and employment, develop local enterprise, strengthen healthcare and improve the quality of life in the local community. This needs assessment was carried out as part of the "strengthening health care" theme and focused on residents views of life in Pollards HillI. Involving 550 people across a spectrum of ages, it captured their experiences, thoughts, ideas and suggestions for improving the quality of life for local people.
This video records a step in the process of opening up cities to children's participation in assessing and improving the urban environment. It records the firs-ever workshop in South Africa at which children from a Johannesburg squatter camp join urban policy makers and planners, NGOs and donor agencies to discuss problem areas in their lives and how these could be improved.
Newletter from the Squatter and Urban Poor Federation. Run by women and men who live in Phnom Penh's poor settlements, it SUPF works to get communities to come together and work out their own solutions to problems they all face, problems of land, evictions, houses, toilets, basic services, savings and credit.
This paper presents a case study of the market town of Hitchin, thirty miles north of London, UK. It describes a community-based planning project which aimed to outline some of the general principles for a plan of sustainable development based on the local interests of the town.
This paper from the Rockefeller Foundation uses case studies from four states in the United States (Atlanta, New York, California, and Maryland) to discuss the challenges and benefits of community building initiatives. It seeks to demonstrate how community building in poor urban communities can help to strengthen the social fabric of the communities and address the issue of urban poverty. Furthermore, it offers various institutional approaches to community development and describes five pillars of community building: leadership, patience, realistic but high expectations, community-wide capacity building, and courage and candor about race.
This document describes the proceedings of a community development and regeneration workshop conducted by the HULL Community Development Company. The workshop aimed to review and explore the connections between community development and sustainable community regeneration. It includes topics such as sustainable regeneration, community development and participation, where the gaps are, who needs to be involved, and action planning.
This paper describes the use of participatory research on violence and discusses a range of participatory urban appraisal (PUA) tools that can be used for this purpose. This includes tools that can document the perceptions of poorer groups regarding the kinds of violence (economic, social or political), the extent, causes (and the links with poverty and exclusion) and consequences of violence, as well as the strategies for coping with or reducing it. In addition, it outlines a conceptual framework on violence, poverty/exclusion, inequality and social capital, drawing on examples from Guatemala and Colombia.
This paper discusses community exchange programmes as a powerful mechanism for increasing the capacity of community organisations to participate in urban development. By enabling communities to share and explore local knowledge created through livelihood struggles, a powerful process is triggered, whereby community exchanges transform development. Through a cumulative process of learning, sharing and collective action, strong sustained and mobilised networks of communities emerge. Central to this has been the sharing of experiences between communities, first at very local levels, then in the city, then nationally and internationally. The development of this methodology by the National Slum Dwellers Association, SPARC (an NGO) and Mahila Milan (a federation of women's cooperatives) in India is described. Exchanges are located within a broader approach to community learning and people's empowerment. Benefits of the exchange process are examined, and the paper reflects on why exchanges are an effective methodology for supporting a process of people-centred development. The necessary conditions for the exchange process to be fully effective are reviewed, which consequently point to the distinct characteristics of the exchange process vis-Ó-vis other participation methodology. It concludes by drawing together some of the wider implications of this approach.