This paper focuses on the role of an NGO, MYRADA, in fostering participation in collaborative watershed management projects in India. It was decided that effective participation required the size of watershed management areas had to be small enough for people to be familiar with, and for families to be able to function together. the PIDOW project aimed to build their management capacities. This paper (i) presents an assessment of the degree of people's participation in various aspects of soil and water conservation, and forestry and horticulture programmes; (ii) explores what is meant by effective participation, and the roles of staff members in fostering participation; (iii) discusses structural features of people's institutions; and (iv) presents an analysis of groups in three PIDOW mini watersheds. This paper would be of interest to those involved in participatory watershed management projects, particularly those involving collaboration between government, NGO's and local people.
Resource Management, Population, and Local Institutions in Katheka: A Case Study of Effective Natural Resources Management in Machakos, Kenya
This report describes in detail the structure and operation of village institutions in Katheka Sublocation in Machakos, Kenya, with regard to natural resources management. It concludes that the village is an effective organisational unit to foster participation in project planning and implementation. villagers understand the relation between improved natural resource management and sustainable food production, and institutional structures are already in place in many countries. What is needed is organising and mobilising village institutions. This can be done through training of village leaders, for example by using 'exemplar' villages, carrying out PRAs and developing village resource management plans.
This paper presents a methodology for participatory evaluation of small group capacities and performance that has been developed for water-user associations in Sri Lanka. The system devised was one of self evaluation and was presented to the farmer groups as a system of self strengthening. The process of self evaluation is described in some detail in the first section of the article which consists of five activity areas in which farmers assess their own performance. The activity areas range from the economic/material activities of the project groups to the organisation and development of the groups. The approach was designed to be an iterative and consultative one i.e. the criteria for evaluation, although initiated by the programme were to be agreed and selected by the program participants themselves. The paper lists the different stages of the process and describes six reasons or rationales for the use of such an approach. Briefly, the paper concludes by identifying some of the more prominent problems associated by this approach.
This long and detailed study describes how the mandal (administrative area) of Devikere in Jagalar, Karnataka State was selected as the appropriate site for an Action Aid anti-poverty project. A socio-economic survey was conducted by a multi-disciplinary team using mainly RRA techniques. The methodology employed appears to have much in common with farming systems research. A section of the report is devoted to health issues. This includes: nutrition and food availability; mother and child wellbeing, health practices and beliefs; the environment; housing; occupation and health services. The anthropological/ethnographic technique of using case studies of individuals adds a strong human dimension to the study. Separate sections are devoted to women, infrastructure and sanitation, and socio-economic conditions.
This paper sets out a series of guidelines with the aim of developing a "model" rapid assessment procedure for the impact of minor system rehabilitation. The content and recommendations leading to the guidelines arose from a one day workshop at IIMI. The methodology is essentially participatory in nature, giving a key role to the view of farmers in its assessment. The questionnaire and the rapid assessment procedure provide a means whereby a post project condition of the scheme can be assessed. The process can subsequently enable periodic monitoring to be carried out with modifications to scheme conditions. The paper documents field reaction to the methodology, having been carried out in two minor schemes in Sri Lanka. The response of field workers to the layout and design of the guidelines was relatively positive with suggestions for fine tuning for particular scheme situations.
Two Irrigation systems in Colombia: Their performance and Transfer of Management to User's Associations
This paper reviews the experience of World Bank support in two schemes in Colombia which are managed by farmers. The paper documents the experience and impact of farmer managed irrigation systems and presents an interesting case study.
This paper documents the rapid rural training carried out for project workers in the rainfed farming project for Eastern India in 1988. The primary objective of the project was to enhance production in a region where without irrigation only one crop can be cultivated each year. Village motivators were assigned to villages with the aim of animating communities in order to faciltate the potential for sustainability on completion of the project. The training introduced several new participatory methods of RRA to the project workers which it was hoped would lead to a better insight into problems and potential solutions. The training focused on developing skills to ensure that information collection and analysis was partcipatory and iterative. Emphasis was placed on developing a satisfactory model to faciltate this process, RRA was the key research principle and methodology. Included in the training were field visits using RRA tools, diagram drawing, participatory games, and the evolution of a model work plan for the village teams. These are well documented with examples from the discussions and presentations.
This report presents the results of a PRA focusing on natural resources management in Kenya. It contains descriptions of historical background on the locality, natural resources, water and soil conservation, agricultural practices, discussions of key social issues and infrastructure (health and education) and analysis of institutions and local leadership. Problems and opportunities are identified, and a village resource management plan was devised. Action by the community and other actors as a result of the PRA is discussed, and some problems in implementation are noted. The report ends with reflections on PRA and the participatory planning process. Positive reflections include enabling the community to undertake their own analysis, promoting an integrated view of development, and development of the village plan. Problems included insufficient participation by marginal groups and by women, and the feeling that PRA is inappropriate to statistical analysis.
A five day PRA training course was held for NGOs working in tank rehabilitaton in Govenhalli, South India. The training programme is described in table form (Events/ Description) following the pattern of each day. The report focuses on organisation and how topics were presented, rather than detailed accounts of the fieldwork or of PRA methods. In the conclusion, positive and negative points of the training and major findings are summarised. The actual PRA exercises are included as an appendix.
A Rapid-Assessment Survey of the Irrigation Component of the Anuradhapura Dry-Zone Agriculture Project (ADZAP)
A rapid assessment survey of a representative sample of tanks was conducted to provide an overview of the irrigation component of the Anuradhapura Dry Zone Agriculture Project (ADZAP). The study traced the development of each sample tank from the pre-project situation to head works construction and later downstream development and work. The questionnaire used was based on rapid assessment questionnaires and covered four general topics : i) Tank construction, ii) The settlement process, iii) The agricultural economy, iv) Irrigation operation and management The questionnaire was compiled through field observations and group interviews normally comprising 5-10 farmers. Farmer input was considerable and the tank selection was in the majority of cases (74%) came from rural development societies. A key policy implication arising from the study was the need for greater farmer participation at the implementation stage i.e settlement and involvement of farmers prior to or while investments are made in the system. A participatory approach to such system development may outpace and outproduce a construction-oriented approach.