This paper describes how the combination of chemical soil and water analyses and PRA exercises were found to be complementary methods in assessing the magnitude of the pollution problem caused by the tannery industry in Kamtchipuram village, Tamil Nadu.
Sanitation ladders and matrices can be used to expose villagers to a range of sanitation options. In this case study villagers were only aware of two sanitation technology options both of which were inappropriate given the hard rock conditions and limited water. Using these tools local perceptions on the advantages and disdvantages of each option were solicited and a possible demonstration toilet option was suggested, as part of an introductory phase of a sanitation project.
Applying PHAST (Participatory Health And Sanitation Transformation) : insights and lessons from Tweerivier, Namaqualand, Northern Cape.
This paper documents experiences from Tweerivier, one of the field sites during a training workshop in Participatory Health and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST).
PHAST was used to broaden local debate and understanding on health aspects of water supply and sanitation and to demystify techology and health . A series of participatory exercises were initiated to allow residents to explore for themselves the underlying cause of their contaminated water and to decide which of these they had control over and could change. An experiment was developed during the course of the field work, to test solar water purification techniques as an alternative to boiling and a broad range of sanitation technology choices were also, introduced to the community in such a way as to take control of the information away from technical experts.
This paper provides several examples of inappropriate policies and programmes in the field of natural resource management, as a basis for highlighting and reflecting on the importance of appropriate behaviour and attitudes on the part of policy makers and programm managers.
This document describes and reflects on the process and methods used to conduct an evaluation carried out between phases of the Red Sea Hills Development Programme to assess the performance of a new project team and the impact of the introduction of a participatory approach. The evaluation was carried out in two settlements in the coastal area and two in the hilly area.
This case study reports on a investigation into the effects of thee National Development Foundation's (NDF) small tank renovation activities in Kurunegala on poverty levels, gender relations and grass roots institutional development. The study was carried out in three villages: a low caste village and a mixed caste village where a participatory approach was facilitated by the Intercooperation Self-Help Support Programme and a high caste community where a more conventional approach was used.
Data was collected using information available from project files and the knowledge and recollections of field staff before conducting a series of exercises using PRA techniques.
The Mahaweli Project: a quarter century retrospect and prospect. Dependency vs empowerment : developing a sustainable management system based on farmer participation.
The Mahaweli Authority Sri Lanka was established to implement the largest multi-purpose Integrated Development Programme ever launched in the country. It is responsible for engineering construction work as well as the establishment of human settlements providing irrigation facilities, social infrastructure, post settlement services, maintenance and management of the settlements and their infrastructure. The MASL system has traditionally had a topdown approach which has contributed to dependancy as well as incurring a high financial cost. Since 1994 the MASL strategy has aimed at a gradual transfer of management of settlements to farmer organisations, thereby overcoming dependancy through empowerment of the farmers, using participatory methods. This has required time, and attitude and behavioral changes at all levels of MASL. This seminar paper details the MASL system and the move towards a sustainable management system based on farmer participation.
This paper outlines some key features of participatory appraisal methods that are applicable to Alaska village sanitation issues. It describes the sanitation problems that afflict "Village Alaska" (the many remote villages in rural Alaska with low populations and high levels of poverty), the application and methodologies of participatory research approaches that were undertaken to address the problems, and the findings of the study.
Swimming against the current : an experience from Sri Lanka in upscaling and mainstreaming participation of primary stakeholders : lessons learned and ways forward
This paper describes an experience from Sri Lanka in scaling-up and mainstreaming participation of primary stakeholders. It first offers a typology of participation and discusses the participatory methodologies promoted in Sri Lanka. The process and strategy adopted in scaling-up and mainstreaming participatory processes in the Mahaweli Authority of Sri Lanka are discussed, along with its successes and failures, drawing from experience with a project on rehabilitation of irrigation infrastructure.