The focus is on the use of PRA in water and sanitation planning, while recognising that other priorities are likely to emerge. There is a description of PRA; uses, tools and principals. A programme for field work is outlined, and each tool discussed in detail, with checklists of 'what to cover' and 'dos and donts'. The structure of the work is fairly rigidly defined, as is the proposal for working with the community on the programme after the PRA, where a community committee is chosen for liason.
This film addresses issues of community management in the context of a government-funded irrigation project in Andhra Pradesh, India. It looks at the problems farmers faced as a result of uneven water distribution, and how their greater participation in managing the scheme provided viable solutions. Irrigation was seen as the key to responding to growing pressure to increase food production (01). Yet with the construction of large-scale irrigation systems farmers became recipients and were no longer the planners and operators of their own systems (03). The loss of control over water distribution, combined with poor maintenance of the canal network, meant that those at the head of the system had too much water while those at the tail received too little (10). A meeting was held for farmers from all the villages concerned to discuss the problems and ways of resolving them (24). A map was drawn showing the water outlets and cropping patterns in the irrigated area. After much discussion a consensus was reached regarding water distribution, canal maintenance, and cropping patterns. Penalties for violation were also agreed (28). Having conducted their own analysis of the problems and devised their own solutions the commitment of the farmers was assured (29).
ActionAid was selected as a collaborating NGO on a World Bank-supported, Government of Karnataka programme to mobilise community participation in water and sanitation supply. The short article describes "how the village people...will own the project from start to finish". A 'sense of ownership' in the new scheme was instilled by making village communities contribute to the costs, to ensure that they will be prepared to take responsibility for operation and maintenance. NGOs ensure funds are raised and also involve everyone in the village in planning, especially women, scheduled cases/tribes and the poorest. 3 day PRA exercises were conducted, involving Venn diagramming, social mapping, seasonality analysis, water resource mapping and discussion meetings. An example is given of a visual representation of the scheme which created a forum in which to discuss the plans and make modifications. Government officials were willing to listen to villagers and discuss with them, but it is noted that Block and District level officials only attended meetings, so missing a chance to learn. It is hoped that the PRA exercises will be the start of continuing community involvement and sustainability of the programme.
Exploring the Interactive Effects of Wells in Hardrock Areas of Peninsular India: An Illustration of the PRA Approach
The interactive effects of wells refers to the withdrawal of groundwater from one well resulting in a reduction in water level in another, accidentally connected, well. Among several wells the cumulative interference may be complex. Well interference poses serious threats to sustainability and equity in well irrigation. This paper provides a combination of statistical and PRA approaches for selecting farmers to study and analyse the equity issues involved. The statistical approach provides the method for sampling study sites, and PRA is used for selecting farmers in the study sites. The justifications for this combined method is explained. PRA mapping is used for collecting data on year of well-drilling, inter-well distance, depth of wells, water yield and other variables which contribute to interference. An example is given from a village in Karnataka, India. Local water diviners and farmers were used as key informants in interviews and as participants in mapping exercises. Mapping was found to be useful in identifying other features which affect interference, and in analysing what different categories of farmer do when there is well failure. The next stage (studying coping mechanisms and addressing equity issues) are not discussed in detail here.
This one page article discusses a WaterAid project funding rainwater harvesting tanks for isolated rural primary schools in Kenya. In contrast to the conventional approach - in which hygiene and health education messages and their medium are designed by professionals - this project included a PRA involving parents and teachers in the choice of medium for hygiene messages for children. These included pictures and plays to provoke discussion.
This paper discusses activities of Mobilisation Against Desertification (MAD), an NGO in Kenya. MAD began their activities with one farmer who introduced two others, and gradually interest spread through the village. A PRA was conducted to find ways MAD could reach the whole village and to help villagers develop their own resource management plan. This paper outlines the PRA activities and environmental problems identified, and the role of a committee in following up with soil and water conservation activities.