This case study describes the Siaya Health Education, Water and Sanitation Project (SHEWAS) which was implemented by the NGO CARE International in Siaya District in Kenya in 1990. It focuses on the use of PRA as a means of stimulating community participation in the identification and planning of water and sanitation micro- projects. The SHEWAS approach is outlined and some of the achievements and results, and lessons learned, are discussed.
This article presents the very interesting history of a government agency which has adopted participatory procedures to mobilise communities for resource conservation. It starts with a brief history of soil and water conservation (SWC) in Kenya. The inability of conventional approaches led to the adoption of the Catchment Approach by the Soil and Water Conservation Branch of the Ministry of Agriculture. In this approach, conservation efforts are concentrated in a specified catchment for a limited period of time. It has changed over time to include a high level of community participation in the analysis of their own conservation problems and in deciding what to do. Participation can take many forms and the article discusses how interactive participation is achieved. A survey of the impact of the Catchment Approach showed the greater effect of interactive as opposed to consultative participation. The success of the Catchment Approach has also been a result of institutional factors which support increased use of participatory methods.
The paper focuses on the use and potential for using PRA in irrigation management research. The first part of the paper focuses on irrigation management research. The second part looks at PRA techniques which are of potential use for irrigation management research. The third section describes experiences of using PRA for irrigation management research, with examples from Nepal, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. A major finding of the literature review is that participation in irrigation management has become a normal way of thinking in the irrigation world, but that participation in irrigation management research is still fragmented. The paper concludes by advocating increased involvement of stakeholders in the research process, and makes some suggestions as to how this could be achieved.
This is part of the World BankÆs æParticipation SourcebookÆ. It discusses the participatory approach adopted in World Bank projects, and the problems and lessons that can be learnt. It focuses on the following areas of concern: a. Challenges for the water and sanitation sector; b. Issues involved in working with governments; c. What is involved in designing stakeholder participation; and d. Identifying and securing institutional arrangements for participation and project delivery.
Parallels are drawn between the current treatment of poverty and the classical approach. Similarly, investment in infrastructure is considered to be non pro poor, since it emphasises the rehabilitation of infrastructure which does not serve poorer people in the first place. Where interventions do occur they are generally of a blueprint nature. This is illustrated through a case study of an urban area in Sambia, which highlights several of the issues and concerns.
Based on the analysis of selected case studies in which IIMI attempted to practise the PRA approach, this working paper focuses on the use - current as well as potential - of PRA in irrigation management research (IMR). It reviews the pros and cons of PRA in the context of IMR and discusses the potential for institutionalisation of PRA at IIMI. Two generic issues on the applications of the PRA approach by irrigation researchers are investigated, viz., the relationship between PRA and more formal quantitative approaches used in IMR; and the scope of using localised, highly variable insights of the water users in improving the management of the whole irrigation system. The paper analyses the potential for further utilisation and development of PRA in major areas of research in irrigation management.
This is a report on a PRA exercise in Mzadhya Pradesh in India, to investigate into people's indigenous knowledge and perceptions on soil and water conservation, conducted by Action Aid. The three day exercise conducted by would be trainers and the local people investigated into the land use pattern, local design parameters in soil and water conservation, and soil erosion. It also has an attachment of diagrams: Resource map, Time Trend diagram, Seasonal map, Community map, and Chapati diagram.
This paper recognises that the irrigation sector provides a rich source of experience and lessons in user participation. It argues that participation by farmers in system design and management helps to ensure sustainability of the system, reduces the public expenditure burden, and improves efficiency, equity and standards of service. The report further presents that mobilising support at all levels and establishing the participatory process, however, involves costs; this also demands knowledge of the incentives facing each group of stakeholders, and of the essential elements in building effective usersÆ organisations. The paper costs, benefits and limitations involved in participation in this irrigation projects, it looks at the role and the incentives required in engaging the various participants, who are World Bank Task Managers, Policy Makers, Agency Staff, Farmers and others. Lessons learnt in organising Farmer Participation in different contexts is discussed and finally the process of building participation into the projects cycle through identification, preparation, appraisal supervision and evaluation is discussed.
This paper examines the landcare movement in Australia and argues that in spite of the undoubted success in terms of mobilising community activity and in raising public awareness, there has been a failure to make a significant difference to the problem of natural resource degradation This is seen as a consequence of a lack of support from government and the wider public and it is argued that expecting rural communities to take responsibility for land conservation without commensurate resources to deal with it is exploitative rather than empowering. Hence, the author argues that greater public participation in the political process is required, whereby citizens and communities take a more active role in the policy making which affects them.
Sustainability indicators and soil conservation: a participatory impact study and self-evaluation of the catchment approach of the ministry of agriculture, Kenya
The paper summarises a participatory impact study in Kenya. PRA was used in six catchments in different agro-ecological areas to assess the linkages between the process of implementation and the impacts on the communities. A framework of sustainability indicators developed by IIED was used to organize field analysis and report writing. The impact study was seen by the Ministry of Agriculture as a self-evaluation of the branchÆs operational procedures, since the results are being used to organize field analysis and report writing.