This paper discusses activities of Mobilisation Against Desertification (MAD), an NGO in Kenya. MAD began their activities with one farmer who introduced two others, and gradually interest spread through the village. A PRA was conducted to find ways MAD could reach the whole village and to help villagers develop their own resource management plan. This paper outlines the PRA activities and environmental problems identified, and the role of a committee in following up with soil and water conservation activities.
A PRA exercise was carried out to analyse the positive and negative effects of drinking in a tribal area of India. Causal diagrams were produced of drinking habits and of women's status, showing the different consequences of birth of a female child as compared to a male child.
This is a report on a PRA exercise in Mzadhya Pradesh in India, to investigate into people's indigenous knowledge and perceptions on soil and water conservation, conducted by Action Aid. The three day exercise conducted by would be trainers and the local people investigated into the land use pattern, local design parameters in soil and water conservation, and soil erosion. It also has an attachment of diagrams: Resource map, Time Trend diagram, Seasonal map, Community map, and Chapati diagram.
A Rapid-Assessment Survey of the Irrigation Component of the Anuradhapura Dry-Zone Agriculture Project (ADZAP)
A rapid assessment survey of a representative sample of tanks was conducted to provide an overview of the irrigation component of the Anuradhapura Dry Zone Agriculture Project (ADZAP). The study traced the development of each sample tank from the pre-project situation to head works construction and later downstream development and work. The questionnaire used was based on rapid assessment questionnaires and covered four general topics : i) Tank construction, ii) The settlement process, iii) The agricultural economy, iv) Irrigation operation and management The questionnaire was compiled through field observations and group interviews normally comprising 5-10 farmers. Farmer input was considerable and the tank selection was in the majority of cases (74%) came from rural development societies. A key policy implication arising from the study was the need for greater farmer participation at the implementation stage i.e settlement and involvement of farmers prior to or while investments are made in the system. A participatory approach to such system development may outpace and outproduce a construction-oriented approach.
This document includes, details of the process used to review ActionAids programme in Somaliland and provides both a summary and details of the findings. The review was carried out by a group of both men and women composed of community based organisation members, village elders, staff from government institutions and other professionals. Mapping, interviews and small group discussions were used to elicit data on availability, relevance, accessibility, utilisation, coverage, quality, effort, efficiency and impact indicators.
This article presents the very interesting history of a government agency which has adopted participatory procedures to mobilise communities for resource conservation. It starts with a brief history of soil and water conservation (SWC) in Kenya. The inability of conventional approaches led to the adoption of the Catchment Approach by the Soil and Water Conservation Branch of the Ministry of Agriculture. In this approach, conservation efforts are concentrated in a specified catchment for a limited period of time. It has changed over time to include a high level of community participation in the analysis of their own conservation problems and in deciding what to do. Participation can take many forms and the article discusses how interactive participation is achieved. A survey of the impact of the Catchment Approach showed the greater effect of interactive as opposed to consultative participation. The success of the Catchment Approach has also been a result of institutional factors which support increased use of participatory methods.
Account of how communities came together to harness water for themselves after failing to get water from state institutions and machinery. The article details how, with the help of an NGO, Agua del Pueblo, the communities devised a working mechanism which was participatory and democratic to manage their water resources and distribution.