En un nuevo enfoque anunciado por el Banco Mundial y el FMI, se ofrece a la sociedad civil un papel en la definición y puesta en práctica de las estrategias nacionales en contra de la pobreza. Con el fin de tener acceso a reducciones en sus deudas, se pide a los países que prepaen un documento de Estrategia de Reducción de la Pobreza, fundamentado en contribuciones de todos los sectores de la sociedad. Si bien las experiencias previas muestran que es mucho lo que se puede hacer para que los procesos de diseño de políticas respondan más a las necesidades de los pobres, esas experiencias también indican que esto implica muchos retos y dificultades. Es esencial tomar en cuenta estas lecciones para que el nuevo enfoque esté a la altura de su ambiciosa retórica.
This set of notes give clear instructions on methods suitable for discussing issues around women's workload. The daily activity profile begins with a role play to stimulate discussion, then drawing time lines in separate groups of men and women. The division of labour session also uses a role play to illustrate the strict division of tasks according to gender. The division of labour chart breaks down a general activity into smaller tasks, using pictures to show who does what. The account of a leadership training programme describes methods used, such as role play, songs, and includes practical instructions on organisational aspects.
This study is part of a global research effort entitled Consultations with the Poor, designed to inform the World Development Report 2000/1 on Poverty and Development. The research has used participatory methods to involve and give a voice to poor people in twenty-three countries around the world. This report is from Zambia, from sites selected to give a rural/urban balance. The study focuses on four main topics, each with a set of key themes, as follows:
- Exploring well-being: How do people define their quality of life, their ill-being or well-being? How have these changed over time? How do people perceive security, risk, vulnerability, opportunities, social exclusion and crime and conflict, and how have these perceptions changed over time? How do households and individuals cope with a decline in well being and how do these coping strategies affect their lives?
- Priorities of the poor: Listing of problems faced by different groups within the community and identifying problems faced by the poor. Prioritisation of problems, in terms of the most pressing needs of the different groups. Have these problems changed over time? What are people's hopes and fears for the future?
- Institutional analysis: Which institutions are important in people's lives? How do people rate these institutions? Do people feel that they have any control or influence over these institutions? Which institutions support people in coping with crisis?
- Gender relations: What are the existing gender relations within the household? What is women's relative position today as compared with the past, and to men? What are the existing gender relations within the community? Are there differences in gender relations among different groups within the community?
This brief paper gives an introduction to the worldview approach and its application in facilitating creation of wholistic baselines, understanding community perceptions, collating Participatory Learning and Action profiles, analysing community survival strategies, and developing community level development plans. The paper introduces the technique, giving details of what is required to get started, and as an example, describes a recent field application of the Wholistic World View Analysis (WWVA) method as developed by the author. The method integrates information from standard PLA (Participatory Learning and Action) exercises including livelihood analysis, problem analysis and uncertainty analysis, through the creation a multi-level circular diagram. The innermost circle in the diagram represents areas in the control of the community, while the middle circle represents areas influenced by outsiders connected to the community, and the outer circle areas under the influence of outsiders that are not connected to the community. The inner circle will then show the capacities of the community while the outer circle will represent the vulnerabilities of the community. The author found the method useful when tested in remote rural villages in several parts of Asia, where villagers had no difficulty in understanding the method and were eager to participate. The estimated time for undertaking a WWVA is estimated to two hours, and the author stresses the need for facilitators to seek triangulation in the perceptions put in the diagram as to avoid overlooking smaller groups.
The paper is a case study of the way that World Neighbors used PRA in a process of community development in one sublocation in Kenya. The paper gives some background as to the practices of World Neighbors, the conditions in the community, and the role of government in the area. It then explains how PRA was used with a representative body at the sublocation level for analysis and planning. The PRA discussions led to development activities that had impacts on the physical well-being of community members, as well as less tangible social effects. The social effects included new modes of operating for the village leadership, changed relationships between community members, and supportive attitudes of local government officials for community led development strategies. The case study raises a number of general strategic choices facing non-governmental organisations using PRA and presents the strengths and weaknesses of the strategies chosen by World Neighbors.
World neighbors in action: assessing and strengthening the sustainability of community development organizations
Sustainable development requires strengthening the capacity of community groups and organizations. This leaflet focuses on this process and provides descriptions of several participatory tools developed to help members of community organizations assess and strengthen their ability to be effective, responsive and sustainable. The guided self-assessment process helps organisations identify at what development stage they are currently and what actions they can take to evolve. Two main exercises are included describing the process step-by-step. The first exercise helps participants to identify the degree to which the community organisation has taken over responsibilities from development programmes. The second exercise helps participants identify and prioritise the external threats to their organisationÆs sustainability, and to identify concrete actions that can be taken to overcome those challenges.
A five day workshop for trainers of PRA was held in the Emmental valley, Switzerland. Participatory mapping and transects were carried out with local residents, as well as theoretical sessions using new training methods, such as a "mood metre" to provide constant feedback. The PRA Problem Solving Exercise questions around fieldwork protocol ("What would you do if..?") are attached as an appendix.
Workshop on PRA for Rural Resource Management, June 15-18 1990 (brief report on proceedings of the workshop)
This is a report of a PRA training workshop held in Tamilnadu which focused on tank irrigation/management. The application of a number of methods to water tanks and irrigation channels are described. Critical reflections are summarized.
A topical PRA on health was held in South India for 23 participants belonging to 11 NGO groups. Activities were conducted separately by the NGO group and women's group : their different perceptions of health problems are compared on a table. Information on the reproductive cycle was also produced by the women's group. Some general observations made about women's participation include : "women have come out with seasonal calendar of 10 months" and "women have triangulated only amongst themselves and never wanted to present in the larger forum."
This report outlines a four day workshop conducted by the Indian NGO SPEECH in Manavarayanenthal, Tamil Nadu. The primary purpose of the exercise was to introduce 23 NGO participants to PRA principles and to evolve new stategies in planning specific health projects. Training took place through a mixture of lectures and activities, which included social mapping (by mixed groups and women only), health mapping, time lines, historical transects, seasonality diagrams, venn diagrams, disease ranking, focus groups with women on the reproductive cycle and a problem linkage exercise. The report includes feedback on the lessons participants learned and some of the illustrations generated by the village participants.