Details the activities of a 60 field orientated PRA training programme. The purpose of the training was to enable village resource management planning to become participatory. The recommendations from the training excercise include follow up to the PRA and the development of VRMPs; sharing of knowledge about PRA; study trip to India for project staff to see PRA in practice; encouragement of village level animators. The remainder of the report consists of details of the itinery of the consultant, schedules of the PRA training workshops and methods of evaluations of the courses
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Munguishi Christian Training Centre provides training in theology and rural development to people from rural parishes. As part of the training course, a one week PRA was conducted in Kiru-Dick village, Babati District. The team consisted of twenty people, including thirteen members of the village. This report describes briefly the organisation of the fieldwork and comments on the PRA methods used.
This provocative article reflects on the experience of conducting PRA exercises in Madhya Pradesh, India. The issues relate to Kulkarni's role as "development manager" in the context of villagers working directly with government officials. The ethical, political and methodological dimensions of PRA (specifically wealth ranking and social mapping) are all brought out in the discussion.
This five day training in PRA for officers on a Government watershed programme in Andhra Pradesh, India, had two main objectives : i) to plan the watershed programme with the communities ii) to build up a team spirit and better communication between members of the watershed teams (made up of different government departments). The report concentrates more on the latter objective and does not give any detail of the fieldwork or findings. The training programme consisted of theoretical sessions (cartoons are included in the report) followed by a three night stay by the 16 teams in 16 villages. Administrative constraints are briefly analysed.
A postgraduate course for professional social workers, entitled "Social Research and Popular Participation", has been developed at the Central American University, Nicaragua. This paper describes the course in detail: diagnosis of practical experiences through "forum-like role play" led to defining a new model of participatory action research. Finally, a participatory research project was carried out by researchers and students in a fishing village in Masachapa. Greater emphasis is given to the theory sections of the course, including training methods used, than to the field work experiences.
Forestry extension services have an important role to play in contributing to a participatory, decentralised and self-sustaining process of rural development. This article describes the approach and different phases of a six-week social forestry training course developed by Forestry Manpower Development (FMP) in Holland. Basic to the training methodology is that participants recognise the value of existing knowledge among the rural population. The participants are then assisted to develop their own participatory approaches to enable them, as extensionists, to make this local knowledge the basis of development initiatives.
An analysis of problems encountered when training local Government officers in Nigeria in RRA techniques, is followed by suggestions for improving the course. A detailed account of each training module for topics such as checklist approach, semi-structured interviewing, wealth ranking, gives lists of questions for the trainer to ask and suggested structure for each session. In the final section, wider issues around selection of trainees and institutional training are discussed. The whole idea of training local government officers in RRA techniques is questioned: articulating people's real needs might place new pressures on the officers which they did not welcome. Finally the difficulties of setting up a training course for trainers are briefly mentioned.
Using Rapid Rural Appraisal for Project Identification. Report on a training exercise in Jamare local government area, Bauchi State, Northern Nigeria
A pilot course on project identification was run for 24 heads of local government departments in several states in Northern Nigeria. The first course was based on fieldwork and focussed on applying RRA techniques for the purpose of project identification. This report evaluates the training programme from a methodological perspective, pointing out mistakes that were made, such as using a questionnaire instead of a checklist. The analysis also shows the importance of working out participants' specific training needs and developing a model to meet these. PRA activities are not described, but some findings are given
Developed from an "experiential learning exercise" in Agro-ecosystem mapping held at Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, this book could form the basis for a training programme on the following mapping methods : map of typography & hydrology, map of enterprises, map of social groups and transect of agro-ecological zones. Section A describes the training programme with the emphasis on field exercises covering the above methods. Case-studies based on the findings and templates (suitable for xeroxing for overhead projection) summarising training objectives and activities, are given in separate sections. The appendices contain articles for background reading.
A five day PRA training course was held for NGOs working in tank rehabilitaton in Govenhalli, South India. The training programme is described in table form (Events/ Description) following the pattern of each day. The report focuses on organisation and how topics were presented, rather than detailed accounts of the fieldwork or of PRA methods. In the conclusion, positive and negative points of the training and major findings are summarised. The actual PRA exercises are included as an appendix.
MYRADA, an NGO working in about 2,000 villages in South India, developed an approach called PALM (Participatory Learning Methods) from their early experiments with RRA. This article describes the areas in which PALM has been used (eg natural resource development) and outlines a typical PALM training exercise. The programme lasts about five days, including camping in the village, and progresses from "introductory" (history of the village) to "exploratory" (eg livelihood, wealth ranking) to a concluding "Operational Plan". Methods and their applications are summarised in table form and illustrated visually. MYRADA is now experimenting with new applications of the methods, developing new methods and "hybrids". This article shows how a PRA approach can become integrated within NGO project planning through a defined training model.
This paper describes reflections by a trainer after two PRA exercises in Zimbabwe and South Africa. After brief accounts of how the PRA activities worked in each context, Mascarenhas makes three points about training : i) Participants should be "vetted" beforehand to ensure that they can become trainers of trainers ii) "The exercises themselves should be conducted for real" , rather than just as a training exercise iii) PRA "has to be followed through with action... to lead to a development process".
This is a how-to-manage rather than how-to-do type of manual - a practical guide directed towards managers rather than practitioners. It provides guidelines for the management of 'in-house' RRA teams of project or agency staff, as well as of 'outside' teams commissioned to do the job. It starts by introducing the main concepts and characteristics of RRA, and when (and when not) to use it. Two chapters focus on selecting, forming and optimising an RRA team. Different aspects of training are also discussed from the viewpoint of a 'purchaser' rather than 'provider': what type of training, who does training, and where is training available are some of the questions addressed. A further chapter looks at commissioning outside teams to do the work, with a focus on practicalities such as establishing terms of reference, timing and budgeting. The final chapter looks at administration of the actual research process, from the various preparations to make prior to the team beginning its work to completing the RRA and evaluating the final report.
These notes are of a workshop on participatory methods which was organised by the MIDNET PRA Interest Group in South Africa in August 1994. The workshop aimed to increase the participants' understanding of participatory methodology for development by sharing methods and approaches from different disciplines. Five methods were discussed: Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSRE); People's Participatory Planning and Action (PPPA); Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA); SARAR and Village Level Planning (VLP). Each method is discussed in terms of its history, values and assumptions, how it works, and the tools it uses.