Community Participation in Rural Water Supply Projects in Northern Punjab and AJK: an exploratory study (Volumes I and II)
The report aims to evaluate the structures and organisational systems associated with effective water user groups, analysing the factors that hinder or support their role in the management of water supply schemes. Although the study is termed participatory, no direct mention of the methodology used is made. However, the study provides some very structured and detailed information on different aspects of water management collected in a survey of 69 villages. Volume I provides information on organisational issues in water management. Volume II instead illustrates five case studies covering a range of issues including social impact of technological choice and community level subsidisation.
A PRA workshop held in a Canadian university led to reflections on holding PRA training in an academic institution. Points included: underlying tensions between participants who are part of the academic hierarchy, different mix of "starting orientations and personal goals", difficulty of setting up field work. The issues all relate to establishing who the training participants are and the implicit assumptions around the training venue.
This document reports on the proceedings of an international symposium on participatory research (PR) in health promotion, which was held in Liverpool, UK in September 1993. It contains the full text of three keynote addresses: an historical perspective to participatory research; the challenges and concerns presented by feminism; and a case study of participatory action research in a women's health programme in India. Short (2-3 page) summaries of the introductions to the workshops are also presented, covering a range of PR and health-related issues. These include: training in PR; examples of frameworks to implement PR; evaluation of participation; relationships between research institutions and communities; integration of PR in government services; participation of health workers in formative research and evaluation; PR in healthy city projects in the UK; community-based needs assessment and health information systems; reflections on and examples of PR in women's health; use of PR in HIV/AIDS prevention; the use of draw and write methods with schoolchildren; PR and the promotion of health in the work setting; and the use of PR in water and sanitation projects.
The article describes the experience of participatory research in a squatter settlement in the Dominican Republic. The research was undertaken as part of a larger study which aimed to explore the links between urban women's changing and multiple productive roles and their health. The article summarises the qualitative participatory research, concentrating on the implications of PUA, in terms of method (what worked, and what did not), and where appropriate, substance (the urban debates uncovered in the process).
This bibliography identifies literature which focuses on participatory research methodologies with a view to providing support for research into food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Much of the material contains participatory research in a general context - what it is, its evolution, underlying epistemological and theoretical issues - but the emphasis is on the use of participatory research tools and techniques with reference to research in rural Africa, in particular in the fields of local agricultural and environmental knowledge. The material is listed alphabetically, also categorised according to subject and region in a subject index.
Listening to Local Voices: Adapting Rapid Appraisal to Assess Health and Social Needs in General Practice
This paper explores the use of rapid appraisal in defining the health and social needs of a community. The aim is to formulate joint action plans between residents and service providers. Data was collected by an extended primary care team from three sources to build a profile of the community: existing documents about the neighbourhood, interviews with a range of informants, and direct observations. Perceived problems of the community and suggestions for change were used as the main outcome measures of the study. Interviews and focus groups identified six priorities for change, many of which were not health related. These changes have been or are being implemented. The paper concludes that an expanded primary care team can use rapid appraisal as a first step in identifying and meeting local health needs. It facilitates a multi-disciplinary approach and complements quantitative methods of assessing need.
Systematic farmer involvement in agricultural research organisations in developing countries has been weak, and the impact of the introduction of farmer responsive research methods has been disappointing. More attention needs to be paid to political and institutional dimensions, in order to permanently alter the balance of power between research and its clients. Opportunities include participatory planning to involve farmers systematically in prioritising the research agenda and incorporating their needs. Strengthening and linking farmersÆ associations with research organisations enable clients to express demand, pressurise and work with research organisations.