Participatory research into HIV/AIDS knowledge, risk perception and sexual behaviour among immigrants and sex workers in Malaysia.
This document comprises of a plan for participatory research work to explore the isssues of HIV with immigrants and sexual health workers. Methods to be used include daily listing, focus group discussions and life histories. The paper includes a section explaining why these methods have been chosen rather than questionnaires.
This paper examines how evaluator's roles are defined by the different stakeholders involved in community initiatives and the special challenges faced by the evaluator of community initiatives. An overview of the current status of evaluation in this field is given and the different strategies and possibilities open to evaluators outlined.
In this paper, the author argues that organisation democracy, whether among collectives or NGOs, is dependent on the organisation's external environment, the historical background of it founders and the abilities of its workers. She first provides an account of 'NGO-Lore' which contextualises the field of study and offers a brief literature review. The paper then provides the definition and workings of organisational democracy and considers its relevance to micro-development NGOs.
"Participation" has three uses and meanings: cosmetic labelling, to look good; co-opting practice to secure local action and resources; and empowering process, to enable people to take command and do things themselves. Its new popularity is part of changes in development rhetoric, thinking and practice. These have been shifting from a standardised, top-down paradigm of things towards a diversified, bottom-up paradigm of people. This implies a transfer of power from "uppers" - people, institutions and disciplines which have been dominant, to "lowers" - people, institutions and disciplines which have been subordinate. The many labels and schools of participatory approaches in research and development tend to hide underlying changes in philosophy and practice. Rapid rural appraisal leading to participatory rural appraisal (PRA) is one example of a shift from data collection to data sharing and empowerment. With PRA, poor people have shown far greater capabilities to appraise, analyse, plan and act than professionals have expected. Empowerment of the poor requires reversals and changes of role. Some of the new approaches and methods, especially of PRA, make reversals less difficult and improbable than they used to be. PRA faces many dangers. For it to be used on any scale in an empowering mode implies widespread changes in bureaucratic procedures and culture, including more participatory management. This Working Paper explores these ideas, looking at Participation, The Paradigm Shift from Things to People, Power Relations: Uppers and Lowers, Change and Spread, The Paradigm Shift in Practice and the Implications (of the paradigm).
A workshop was held in India to "adapt some of the participatory methods developed within agriculture for conducting PRA exercises on women's health". A "body mapping" exercise was conducted with a group of traditional birth attendants to discuss their concepts of reproduction, contraception and nutrition. A village mapping exercise led later to construction of "pregnancy time lines" and information on family planning acceptors. The article briefly mentions constraints, such as how to deal with sensitive issues like abortion.
This paper begins with an explanation of the need for a gender perspective in the participatory development field. Subsequently it examines some of the obstacles to achieveing goals, such as cultural beliefs and practices, and ways of surmounting these obstacles. Various positions in the debate in regard to the project paradigm, social actors versus communities as entities and women's organisations and participatory issues are also presented.
This book explores research as a collaborative process: researching with and for people, rather than on people. In particular, it addresses the central question: "What is the nature of participation, and how can participative relationships and processes be established and sustained in human enquiry?"