The main focus of this volume is on PRA and other similar tools and techniques. It describes in detail some 140 tools and techniques that CDRN as a Ugandan NGO has found useful in it's work. Each entry describes the main rationale for using the tool and it's main use from both community and outside perspectives. There is also a simple step-by-step guide on hw to facilitate the application and use of the tool, some "do's" and "don'ts" and each entry includes an example drawn from actual work in Uganda.
A Discussion of the Reliability of Measures of Hygiene Behaviours: The Case of the Health Behaviour Intervention Project, Lima, Peru
This paper discusses the use of qualitative and quantitative methods to eliminate systematic sources of error in quantitative measurement of hygiene behaviours in the Health Behaviour Intervention project in Lima, Peru. The authors argue that the combination of methodologies can give public health better data for the design and implementation of interventions to prevent disease. In relation to qualitative methods, the paper discusses the reliability of structured observation data for health intervention studies. It presents background on structured observation in Lima, reliability of measure across observers and over time, and preliminary significant associations between behaviours and diarrhoeal disease.
Participatory approaches are widely used to encourage group members to become involved in processes. Activities such as drawing, role play and small group work can be particularly useful in HIV/AIDS work when exploring sensitive issues such as sexual experiences, vulnerability and risk. This guide is designed to be an ôideas bookö of shared experiences to help facilitators prepare for participatory workshops, meetings and planning activities with NGOs and CBOs responding to HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Drawing on the practical experiences of the Alliance and its partners, it is packed with effective ideas such as drawing community maps and active listening exercises
A facilitatorÆs guide for needs assessment on access to HIV/AIDS related treatment: a resource to support the development of a practical toolkit for NGOs, CBOs and PLHA groups.
This facilitatorsÆ guide has been developed to be used during the initial stages of a collaborative toolkit project between the International HIV/Aids Alliance, WHO and UNAIDS. The toolkit project has been facilitated by a consultant through literature reviews and participation of a large international reference group in the project. The next step of the project is to carry out needs assessments with NGOs, CBOs (community based organisations) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). This guide is a draft ôworking documentö and not, therefore an official document of WHO and UNAIDS. The guide has been designed to be a practical resource to be used, tested and further developed during the needs assessment process for the toolkit project. Section 1 of the guide outlines the scope of the needs assessment covering processes of choosing treatment, experiences of obtaining and using treatments, encountered barriers and hopes for changes. Section 2 outlines the specific topics and possible questions which the authors hope to investigate with five groups potential participants in the needs assessment (PLHA, family or community carers providing help, NGOs providing treatment, medical professionals providing treatment, purchasers of treatment). The questions cover general attitudes and understanding, knowledge of affordable/desirable treatments, ensuring effective treatment, benefits and difficulties of providing and using treatment, and suggestions on potential toolkit contents. Section 3 contains information and data collection tools for the assessment including a project information sheet, participant data sheet and tables relating to treatment usage and availability. Section 4 provides focus group questionnaire formats for carrying out the assessment with the five groups.
A Field Methodology for Participatory Self- Evaluation of P.P.P. Group and Inter-Group Association Performance.
The introductory section of this brief paper discusses the importance of developing an evaluation methodology that is practical and flexible enough to be carried out by the community in the Peoples Participation Programme of the FAO. Uphoff reiterates that in fact the answers arrived at by the evaluation are in themselves not as important as what is learnt from the process of reaching consensus on such answers. An illustration of what the methodology utilised actually constituted is described in the first section of the paper. In the second section, however, the potential benefits of the methodology are discussed and these are categorised as being; i) that the process is self educative ii) the process is self improving iii) the process allows members of the programme to monitor progress and iv) it has the potential to improve training. Each of these potential benefits are discussed in some detail. The third section of the paper outlines a process for introducing the system in a rural setting in a number of steps. The last section, however, concludes by discussing a variety of issues related to the process of participatory self evaluation including problems of objectivity, comparability of numbers and use of appropriate language. Attached to the end of the document is an extensive section that includes an inventory of questions for group self evaluation and a list of questions for self evaluation. (Shorter version published in Community Development Journal Vol 26 No 4 )
Community participation in ICT-for-development (ICT4D) is sometimes portrayed as a ‘magic bullet’, which will inevitably lead to better project outcomes and the empowerment of marginalised participants from the local community. This paper takes a critical approach to participation, drawing on dual roots of participation in Development Studies and Information Systems, to consider whether apparently successful ICT4D projects, that follow best-practice for participation, are also succeeding in longer-term participant and community empowerment. The paper identifies issues and success factors relevant to participatory ICT4D and its potentially empowering role for local communities; explores the relevance of these factors to the reality of ICT4D projects in developing countries; and investigates the potential for producing an analytical framework that incorporates a project design approach that could help practitioners in the field incorporate empowerment objectives.
Games are group activities that involve learning plus acquisition of skills and competence, building of trust and co-operation, and fun. A game-centred appraoch to development is important because: (i) the reductionist foundation of scientific methods are inadequate for understanding complex livelihood systems; (ii) complexity must be understood explicitly; (iii) the subjectivity of all actors, including investigators, must be recognised. RRA techniques are appropriate to meeting these needs. Games create the conditions that encourage group work, foster efficiency and increase the likelihood of the formatin of sustainable groups and institutions. The order of the book is: a discussion of reductionism, elements of complexity, subjectivity, creating conditions for interdisciplinarity, RRA (principles, techniques and groups), and various types of game. The latter, final, section suggests guidelines for trainers and animators, together with procedures for the conduct of some group processes, analytical and role-paying games.
The growth and genesis of participatory approaches to training for rural development are traced, suggesting that PRA has given an 'enormous boost' to the movement. Conventional and participatory approaches to training are compared in terms of their assumptions about the learning process. Various ways of looking at training approaches are suggested : 'content' versus 'process'; behavioral concerns ('coping skills, transforming behaviour and self reliance/ transcending behaviour'); and looking at task learning in terms of 'enabling factors' (knowledge and attitudes) and 'performance' factors (or skills). The roles of the 'new' trainer (of the participatory approach) are 'multifaceted and highly demanding'. There is also a need for institutional change to 'provide a supportive environment if participatory approaches are to be successful'.