The introduction to this book asserts that RRA has been used in coastal communitites, but "what has been lacking so far are attempts to use RRA systematically in looking at fishing communities, their way of life and livelihood, and the coastal ecosystems in which they live". This manual attempts to fill that gap. It is specifically intended as an introduction to RRA for people in departments of fisheries, local fisheries services and NGOs.
The SMAP Development Process is a series of community learning opportunities based on micro-projects undertaken in a participative, community-based manner which facilitates improvement of community skills in harnessing, managing and sustaining development resources. SMAP focuses on small scale, quick acting projects at the community level. By assisting communities to identify, plan, implement and evaluate these "micro-projects", SMAP aims to increase the communities' capability to direct and undertake their own future development.
A Manual on the Estate/Barangay-level Productivity Systems Assessment and Planning (PSAP) Methodology
This clear manual covers a large number of research techniques and methods commonly used in PRA. They are grouped under three categories of information gathered: spatial, temporal and social/institutional information. For each tool/technique, the following steps are explained in detail: what information can be gathered with the technique, steps in carrying out the technique and the importance of the technique. Illustrations are given of examples for each tool and an analysis is made of the sample. Once the data are gathered, the manual covers aspects of verifying them, identifying problems and opportunities and using the data for planning. The examples given come from the application of the tools in the village of Igdagmay on Antique. While the manual does not focus on soil and water conservation, it is written for rural development work in general. This is a good reference book for those wishing to use any of the techniques covered.
A methodological framework for combining quanitative and qualitative survey methods: backgound paper: types of combinations
This DFID project aims at improving the use of qualitative (often participatory) and quantitative (often non-participatory) methods in collection and analysis of information in the natural resources sector. It offers practical guidance for field staff and project managers, allowing them to select the most appropriate data collection and analysis methods when faced with information objectives and constraints in the data collection and analysis process.
The document is a basic element of the project, and the first of four written outputs. It introduces the concept of trustworthiness and sets out the basic types of methodological combinations which will be built upon and utilised in the project. It is partly a review of ways in which qualitative and quantitative approaches to data collection have been combined in the past, and it also provides indications of new ways in which techniques could be combined.
In this article, the authors recount the development of an innovative monitoring tool for use by sex workers in a peer education programme. A brief history of the project in Nepal is given and the use of the tool - the 'mala' is described with an accompanying note on its impact.
A description of the 'Mala' (necklace) as a self assessment tool helping women to monitor both their own activities as commercial sex workers as well as their role as peer educators. Different activities were recorded using coloured beads strung into necklaces.
This study looks critically at the varying concepts and practices of participatory development (PD) and asks how to practically strengthen the concept and practice of it for more effective programming with the poor. It first looks at the conceptual weaknesses of PD and suggests that ,fro participatory development to be a non-tyrannical paradigm , a rights based approach towards it, coupled with a series of practical mechanisms is required to strengthen it. It tests these theories against the programming of an international NGO, the HIV/AIDS Alliance. The research methodology included literature review, interviews with key informants from the Participation group at IDS (Institute of Development Science, UK) and SWOC (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and constraints) analysis. The study report gives an introduction to the study and goes on to analyse the assessment of the concept of participatory development; conceptual assumptions; linking participation as a goal and a right, with better practice; strengthening the concept and practice of participation at the HIV/AIDS Alliance, on institutional personal and professional levels; and assessing the potential to strengthen the concept and practice of PD. It concludes that a rights based approach to participation is both possible and desirable, but that it will require considerable effort by all stakeholders to make it a reality.
This guide aims to enable activists, trainers and other involved in development and democracy to promote citizen participation and to democratize decision-making. Drawing on experiences of NGOs from numerous countries, the document contains concepts, tools and step-by-step processes aimed at promoting citizen advocacy. It aims to help activists, practitioners and planners to work with civil society in a way that promotes political change, develops solutions to development problems and policies, creates strong and lasting links and transforms power relations, including gender dynamics.
Reflections around the tensions between male fieldworkers and Women's Project Officers on an Oxfam project, lead to the idea that RRA training can help to raise gender awareness. The RRA approach encourages fieldworkers to listen, to see that communities are not "homogenous blobs" and to abandon preconceived ideas. A case-study from Sierra Leone shows how a social map drawing activity done separately by men and women revealed their different perceptions and needs. The second case-study shows how RRA work in Ghana caused male fieldworkers to change their views of women's position in the community. The next most important step would be to "transform fieldworkers' anger and resentment into positive pride in their awareness of difference".
A note for the staff of bilateral and multilateral aid agencies and of northern NGOs on participatory rural appraisal (PRA)
Note outlining the essentials of PRA, including what it is, where it is found, how it has been applied and some of its dangers and shortcomings. Do's and don'ts for its use by agency staff are highlighted.